History 2145A/B Lecture Notes - Giacomo Matteotti, Vatican City, Lateran Treaty

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Jan 18/11
The Tired Old King: Victor Emanuel 3
-the courts let the fascists off, not the socialists though when they cause trouble- they like the
fascists- agree with their ideas
-the king could have tried to supress the fascist rule- king was fearful, shrewd, thought it was
better to invite Mussolini into power than to fight him
-cant ignore fascism anymore because they are a presence on the ground
Mussolini as Statesman
*-“business as usual”- fascists
-on the cover of Time magazine- caption is ‘Benito and Italia Bella’
-there was hope the parliament would be restored
-some blackshirts were radical- wanted to see a radical reconstruction
-when Mussolini first came to power there were members from other parties in his cabinet
-not a dictatorship in Italy until 1926
*-idea of a broken compass- the fascists are swinging back and forth- ex. conservative,
traditional at one point, radical at another point
Defenders of the Fascist ‘Revolution’: The Squadristi
-makes concessions in laws and policies
-ex. in 1923 he agrees to enacting compulsory religious education, Italy previously didn’t want to
see the Church involved in people’s private lives and public spaces- compromises one of his own
principles- he is anti-clerical
-Mussolini is gaining consent- winning the support
*-Mussolini makes a series of these compromises with the Church, army , industrials- this helps
to build consent and explains why he survives in power for so long, sewing the cracks for this fascist
state
-he restores order, stability, makes compromises, but also has to tame his party and the
revolution
Lateran Accords: Making Peace with the Vatican, 1929
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