nov 28.pdf

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Published on 11 Dec 2012
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US Civil War 1861-5
Made in England
For American South military
Britain is suppose to be neutral but they are allowing Americans to build this in their Liverpool docks
Sails to the ocean
Has a significant presence on the ocean during the war
Fear that US North will take revenge on Britain by invading CA
“Trent Affair”
American ship
Americans on the ship forcibly remove two Southern American confederalist politicians on their way to England
English known for going onto ships and removing people
England says if they are not released, they threaten war
St. Albans Raid
In Vermont
Have N and S confederalists and sympathizers
Rob a bank
Flee to CA
Arrested, go to court, Montreal judge lets him off because of legal loophole
England sends largest troop since 1812 to CA
Makes England think “this is costly”
Make British politicians think that previously they were trying to be hand-offs of CA - England begin to think
Confederation may be a good idea
Think the N that parts of CA will be good to annex in US
During Manifest Destiny in US
Failed to get CA to believe it should continue trading N and S
Fenian Raids, 1866
Soldiers during Civil War (with angry Irish soldiers who know what war looks like)
1866: invade CA
Number of attacks in Maine and New Brunswick
Like 1830s, it isn’t military significant - symbolic significance
Makes people in New Brunswick nervous
Next invasion is through the Niagara area
Battle of Ridgeway - lasts an hour
Fenian win but withdraw
People fighting range from militia people and university students (not well-trained)
Not military significant
Last attack is into QC - hold out for two days
Head towards US border where American soldiers arrest them
Gets people thinking about annexation
November 28, 2012
Other reasons
British investors
Colonial common goals
If they did have some sort of confederation, lots of Rupert’s Land could be transferred to them
Deadlock in the United Provinces
“Great Coalition”
Original coalition is ended
Elected government is dissolved
Brown; Macdonald; Cartier; Mowat
Incorporation of Rupert’s Land
Representation by population (in favour of the CA W)
Maritime Union?
Don’t have ethnic tension like CA W
Motivated by:
Leonard Tilley (NB)
Charles Tupper (NS)
Charlottetown Conference, 1864
Premier of Maritime colonies starting to think about Canadian confederation
Part of way Civil War happened was because there was not a strong centralized government, which allowed for
the colonies to go their own way
Provinces in the model would be able to promote provincial affairs
Say there will be two levels of power
Lower: constructed of rep by pop
Upper: regional representation
Maritimes give up on the Maritime Union and proceed with this
Quebec Conference
QC is concerned with the Roman Catholic church, French language - fear that in a centralized government, their
needs will be ignored
Disagreement in regional representation
Railways increased the debt loan considerably - Maritimes want railways to be built to connect them with CA W
since CA W built railways to create the debt
Central gov would have jurisdiction in international law, Indian affairs
Prov gov would have power in education, control public land
For debt, central gov would take in all of national debt
Maritimes get 24 seats in federal gov, and CA E and W would have 24 seats based on number of colonies
72 resolutions
Each premier bring back to their government to accept or reject
Approval for Confederation is narrow in QC
November 28, 2012
In ON, there was a division
Believe that they will win out because they have a larger population, thus more representatives
In the Maritimes, people believed
NB concerns - had more trade with US than central CA, like the idea of railways but worried about where in NB
they will be built, worried about central gov placing tariffs on fish building
Joseph Howe
Charles Tupper
Starts the Anti-Confederation League
Tries to go to England to negotiate with government
Anti-Confederation League
Some members want to be annex by US
Others want to be members of England
Re-negotiation of terms for NS
Believe the best method would be to re-negotiate the terms in Confederation
First 10 years after Confederation, NS will receive more transfer payments than other provs (than originally
agreed upon)
PEI rejects Confederation
Those that are pro-con are looking for a resolution for their landowning conflicts
Newfoundland not interested at all
Railways aren’t go to help them, so why should they have to pay for them?
Westminster Conference, 1866
Those that agree come to this conference
British North America Act, 1867 is created as a result
Some people on this day (July 1) that fly black flag as a sign of protest
Confederation was not a progression of acts because not all wanted it
November 28, 2012

Document Summary

Trent affair : american ship, americans on the ship forcibly remove two southern american confederalist politicians on their way to england, england says if they are not released, they threaten war. Annexation: think the n that parts of ca will be good to annex in us, during manifest destiny in us, failed to get ca to believe it should continue trading n and s. November 28, 2012: if they did have some sort of confederation, lots of rupert"s land could be transferred to them. Other reasons: british investors, colonial common goals, deadlock in the united provinces. Great coalition : original coalition is ended, elected government is dissolved, brown; macdonald; cartier; mowat, brown, incorporation of rupert"s land, representation by population (in favour of the ca w) Maritime union: don"t have ethnic tension like ca w, motivated by: 72 resolutions: proposed, each premier bring back to their government to accept or reject, approval for confederation is narrow in qc.