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Lecture

History 2201E Lecture Notes - Thirteen Colonies


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 2201E
Professor
Prof

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THE IMPACT OF EUROPEAN RIVALRIES IN NORTH AMERICA: NEW
COLONIES; A NEW NATION; LOSSES FOR NATIVE PEOPLE (1660s-1780s)
INTRODUCTION: This lecture deals with two major events about which you already know the
outcome: Britain’s conquest of France in North America in the 1760s; Britain’s loss of its
Thirteen Colonies two decades later as the outcome of the American Revolution. These events
both altered the balance of power in northwestern Europe and shaped the future of North
America. The end of New France and the creation of the US also spelled the beginning of the end
for native people in northeastern North America as significant military players.
1. BACKGROUND: French-English rivalry at home and abroad
2. SITES AND SOURCES OF FRENCH-ENGLISH CLASHES IN NORTH AMERICA
Inland (Rupert’s Land, Great Lakes area, Mississippi and Ohio valleys); furs, military
concerns
The Atlantic area (Newfoundland and Acadia); cod, military concerns
3. TREATY OF UTRECHT, 1713, AND SUBSEQUENT PERIOD OF “PEACE”
Terms: losses for France at the “bargaining table,” including the heart of Acadia (NS)
Neutral Acadia
Building of fortress at Louisbourg by France
4. RENEWAL OF HOSTILITIES, 1840S, AND A BRIEF “PEACEFUL” AFTERMATH
Capture of Louisbourg, 1744 (by New Englanders) and its return, 1749
Founding of Halifax as a military garrison by the British, 1749
Deportation of the Acadians, 1755; an early instance of “ethnic cleansing”??
5. SEVEN YEARS’ WAR, 1756-63
British under Amherst capture and destroy Louisbourg, 1758
British win Battle of Plains of Abraham, Sept 1759, take Montreal one year later
Treaty of Paris, 1763, ends France’s empire in Canada
Pontiac’s War against the British, spring 1763: a “pan-Indian confederacy”
6. THE IRONIC FRUIT OF BRITAIN’S VICTORY: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
7. IMPACT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION ON NOVA SCOTIA AND QUEBEC
CONCLUSION: a transformative century for North Americans, both natives and “newcomers”
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