History 2201E Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Red River Colony, United States Territorial Acquisitions, Numbered Treaties

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Published on 26 Jun 2012
Western University
History 2201E
Lecture 12 Part 1 Westward Expansion
McDonald realized that a policing force/authority was required in the
o Created the Northwest Mounted Police in 1873
o Soon became an invaluable force during westward expansion,
especially at the Red River Settlement and policing the American
whisky trade
The Numbered Treaties
o Made with natives far before the creation of provincial boundaries
o Ambiguity of the Royal Proclamation of 1763 didn’t make it clear
where the boundary of British jurisdiction ended
o Most plains tribes and Métis wanted to treat with the federal
To keep enough land for themselves and preserve their way of
o Government not out to take native land, the treaties were not very
People didn’t fully understand what they were giving
Language and Native/European concepts of land ownership
o Why would the Natives enter into these treaties?
Disease: many epidemics that are very similar to those that
occurred in the east at contact
American westward expansion
Bison growing scarce
Sitting Bull: tried to get all the plains tribes to get together and
fight European expansion
Sioux native, land straddled the border
Crowfoot: Blackfoot native, against violence at any time,
wanted to negotiate during expansion
Poundmaker: Cree chief, against treaties and giving away
more land; fight the Europeans if necessary
o Could the Métis treat the same way as the plains tribes?
Different method of ceding land
Could cede/negotiate their land via scrip
Looks like paper money
Deals with the Department of the Interior
$160 per acre of land per person, later increased to
Lead to a lot of speculation, Europeans looking
everywhere for Métis to buy these scrips
Can hunt land that you have ceded until it is needed by
the government; had no idea how fast westward
expansion would happen
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