History 2201E Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Chain Reaction, Ross Rifle, Ukrainian Canadians

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Lecture 13 Part 4 Canada and WWI
World War I: 1914-1918
o Tense political situation
o Russia, France, Britain vs. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Turkey
o Causes
Ultra-Nationalism
Many different groups living in a small area under
Habsburg rule (German)
Didn’t want to be ruled by Germans any more
Ethnic groups within Europe want to maintain their
own government, language, religion, politics, etc. and be
separate from the Austrian empire
Increased militarism
Naval race between Britain and Germany
Economic imperialism
European powers trying to get a slice of Africa
o Europe a powder keg, waiting for a spark
Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austro-
Hungarian Empire by Gavrilo Princip (Serbia) was the spark
needed
Chain reaction: Austria goes against Serbia, Russia mobilizes
against Austria
Germany moves against Russia
Britain, France and Canada move against Germany and
Austria
o One of the biggest catastrophes of the modern world
o Critical development in Canadian history
Left a permanent mark on political and economic development
o With the burdens of the war comes rewards for Canada
Relationship between Canada and the empire changes: Canada
becomes stronger
First step towards independence
o Many Canadians quick to volunteer for the army, even the French
Canadians and Natives
o Great popular enthusiasm for the war
Young men had no idea what they were getting themselves into
Many new immigrants wanted to defend their home country
Huge adventure for young Canadians, romantic ideas
Didn’t last for long, war became too real for everyone
o Canadians had worked hard to build Canada and wanted to defend it
o Overwhelming confidence that the war would last no longer than 3
months
o The War Measures Act
Gives the federal government extreme sweeping powers
Authority over harbours and ship movements,
transportation in general
Power to seize and expropriate private property
Arrest and deport people who may be a danger to the
country
Control over the national economy: trade and
production
o Issue of troops commitment to Britain
One infantry division sent immediately, easy because of the
number of volunteers
Poorly trained and unprepared
In the trenches within the first year
Sir Sam Hughes in charge
Insisted that Canadians be outfitted with the Ross Rifle,
very problematic for Canadian troops
600,000 men sent from Canada, were able to make 4 corps
divisions
400,000 served overseas
3,500 Native troops, even though they were exempt
from conscription
o Very close to the number of French Canadians
8,000 Canadians enlisted in the British Navy
60,000 Canadian troops killed during the war
o Internment operations in Canada
Italian-Canadians, German-Canadians and Ukrainian-
Canadians interned because they could be threat to national
security
Britain argued that Ukrainian-Canadians should be treated as
friendly-aliens, weren’t treated as such

Document Summary

Lecture 13 part 4 canada and wwi: tense political situation, russia, france, britain vs. germany, austria-hungary, italy, turkey, causes. Many different groups living in a small area under. Didn"t want to be ruled by germans any more. Ethnic groups within europe want to maintain their own government, language, religion, politics, etc. and be separate from the austrian empire. European powers trying to get a slice of africa: europe a powder keg, waiting for a spark. Assassination of franz ferdinand, archduke of austro- Hungarian empire by gavrilo princip (serbia) was the spark needed. Chain reaction: austria goes against serbia, russia mobilizes against austria. Britain, france and canada move against germany and. Austria: one of the biggest catastrophes of the modern world, critical development in canadian history. Left a permanent mark on political and economic development: with the burdens of the war comes rewards for canada. Relationship between canada and the empire changes: canada becomes stronger.