History 2201E Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Canadian Nationalism, Frederick Banting, Nellie Mcclung

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Lecture 14 Part 3 - Post-World War I
1920s
o Military and civil demobilization had to occur; had to return to normal
o Canada lost 60,001 men
137,000 returned wounded
70,000 severely disabled (blinded, shell-shocked, amputees,
etc.)
o Department of Civil Reestablishment and Invalid Soldier
Commission created
Rehab centers, prosthetics, etc. to ease soldiers back into
society
o Soldier Settlement Act, 1917
For soldiers who returned mentally and physically sound
Veterans given parcels of land and interest-free loans to buy
livestock if they wanted to become farmers
Most land that was given came from Native reserves
Didn’t apply to Native soldiers, sent back to their reserves
Tried to return to the world, but was very difficult
o Soldiers that returned found a different country
Economic growth and change
Terrible medical nightmare of the Spanish Flu that broke out in
1919
Killed over 50,000 Canadians
Raged from 1918-1920
Female relatives over 21 had right to vote in federal elections
and run for federal office
o Women’s Suffrage
Canadian Suffrage Association & National Equal Franchise
Union
War gave them a push towards their goal for universal suffrage
Federal vote given to Natives on reserves and those who had
fought in the war
Provincial Votes:
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba: 1916
Ontario: 1917
Nova Scotia: 1918
New Brunswick: 1919
Newfoundland: 1925
Quebec: 1945
o Humanitarian/Social reforms
Schools became mandatory, attempt to get the kids off the
streets and educated for the world
Better working conditions, safer conditions, minimum
standard of living
o Science/Medicine
Frederick Banting and colleagues (Charles Best, James B. Collip,
J.J.R. McLeod) discover insulin to treat diabetes
o Visual Arts
Group of Seven
Not always popular
Influenced by European post-
impressionism/expressionism
Emily Carr
o Radio
Channels usually religious or news in nature
o Prohibition
Prohibits the sale of liquor
Can only get it for medicinal purposes
Brought on by the war because grain was needed for food, not
alcohol
Nellie McClung
Involved in the women’s suffrage movement and also
women removing alcohol from their daily lives
Not a feminist! But her work was influential during the
feminist movements of the 1960s
Prohibited a lot longer in the US than it was in Canada
Canada to 1930, US to 1933
Canada shipping alcohol to the US, made relations tense
o Quebec alienated from the rest of Canada
Language boundaries, upset about conscription, etc.
Traditional French elite pushing for French Canadian
nationalism; led by Lionel Groulx
Priest
Envisioned a future for Quebec that was separate from
Canada
Should be prepared for the eventuality of standing on
their own
Premier Bourassa didn’t agree, thought they were too
radical; mixing of religion and French nationalism
o 1920s economy was like returning to the Laurier era
Maritimes became poor again after the Halifax Explosion,
Vancouver booming
Rights to resources became and issue

Document Summary

Lecture 14 part 3 - post-world war i: military and civil demobilization had to occur; had to return to normal, canada lost 60,001 men. 70,000 severely disabled (blinded, shell-shocked, amputees, etc. : department of civil reestablishment and invalid soldier. Rehab centers, prosthetics, etc. to ease soldiers back into society: soldier settlement act, 1917. For soldiers who returned mentally and physically sound. Veterans given parcels of land and interest-free loans to buy livestock if they wanted to become farmers. Most land that was given came from native reserves. Didn"t apply to native soldiers, sent back to their reserves. Tried to return to the world, but was very difficult: soldiers that returned found a different country. Terrible medical nightmare of the spanish flu that broke out in. Female relatives over 21 had right to vote in federal elections and run for federal office: women"s suffrage. Canadian suffrage association & national equal franchise. War gave them a push towards their goal for universal suffrage.