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Lecture 8

History 2301E Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Missouri Compromise, Ken Burns, Roger B. Taney

Course Code
HIS 2301E
Alison Meek

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November 2, 2017
Ken Burns @KenBurns
Many factors contributed to the Civil War.
One caused it: slavery
Escalating Sectionalism
Final part of the road to the Civil War
Was not caused by a lack of compromise
Like the American Revolution, there was a very long lead-up and then triggers
Set the country up for collision
The expansion of Slavery
o The Compromise of 1850
o Uncle Tom Cabin, 1852
o The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
The Creation of the Republican Party, 1854
‘Bleeding Kansas’, 1856
o john Brown
Dred Scott v Sandford, 1857
The Expansion of Slavery
- Regionalism
o Regional differences becoming more distinct
o The North and the South
o Issues:
Federalism vs. anti-federalism
Slavery at the heart
- Debates
o Ideological
Moral issues
Abolitionists believe that slavery anywhere is immoral
o Slavery has no place to exist in the United States
o A minority perspective: few northerners felt this way and even
less southerners believed this perspective
o Political
House and free state domination
House of representatives
o representation by population
From 1819 onwards is dominated by states that do not have slavery
the bigger states are in the north (New York, Pennsylvania)
o North of Mason-Dixon line
Senate balance
Each states had the same number of representatives
Missouri compromise continued this balance
o Jefferson, 1819: this is a bandaid solution the issue of new land
will be a problem
Westward expansion
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1840 more of the Louisiana territory wants to come into the Union
o also have lands gained from the Mexico war
o Oregon territory
Getting slavery moved from those traditional states
Missouri Compromise
The Free Soil Party, 1848
- Purpose
o White labourers and white farmers
o Not about abolition
o Concerned about making sure that those western lands aren’t opened to slavery
o As white farmers, they cannot compete with the slave economy
o Not an issue about morality, but rather an issue of expansion
- Slogan: free soil, free speech, free labor, free man
- The 1848 election
o Martin Van Buren
A big enough issue that led to a presidential campaign
o This issue is now back in the national dialogue
Clay’s Resolutions and the Compromise of 1850
- Henry Clay
o A key figure in 1819 with the Missouri compromise
o At 70 years old, still has the power to enact change
- purpose
o to find another compromise which allows the balance to continue
o to take emotion and ideology out of the debate
people aren’t rational when they are emotional
- package deal
o “peace and harmony”
- An updated compromise: Key Resolutions
1. California
a. 1849 constitution
b. they are coming in the U.S. as a free state
c. California is accepted into the Union as a free state
2. Mexican lands without restriction
a. They could choose whether or not they were free states
3. Washington, D.C.
a. Slaves within
i. Slaves still living in the capital
ii. Slaves that already live in the capital remain slaves
b. Slave trade
i. But there is no more slave trading across the state boundaries into Washington
ii. Mother’s lineage still continues
iii. Hopes that over time slavery will end, many people leaving and coming into the
4. The Fugitive Slave Act
a. Importance
i. Wants to find a way to deal with the compromise of runaway slaves
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