testament to strength and effectiveness of bureaucracy his forefathers had y richard was succeeded by john created. John was the complete opposite of richard: was more involved and abled ruler than richard, extremely severe and uncompromising. became unpopular within population: waged many unsuccessful war, lose many landholdings, fought with pope about who had control. lost and had to pay tribute to rome: accused of killing nephew arthur, spring 1215: returned from failure from attempt to reclaim parts of france. barons able to take london and control it able to keep john out y eventually able to use this as a bargaining chip with john y. Idea of individualism by barons was a foreign concept in feudalism existed in a society: barons did not seek to get rid of king s power but to limit it, document was hardly revolutionary. another document charter of liberty from a 100 years before.