Not able to fully establish control over lombardy. Had another plan: to acquire southern italy (sicily and tip of end of boot) Acquired this through marriage: son married to constance. When son came into control of southern part of italy, italy was surrounded strategic move: became known as a king arthur figure for germany, notion that he was asleep somewhere and would wake up. Frederick ii took over in 1215: grew up in sicily surrounded by great culture with norman and muslim influences, pope innocent iii agreed to support him over rival utum if he gave up sicily. Had no intention in keeping these promises: knew many languages, founded university of naples, practiced religious tolerance that was codified in constitution of melfi (1231) Made everyone equal under the law: worked hard to re-establish control of n italy at the expense of germany, 1231: made constitution that serving limited emperors" powers north of the alps.