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Lecture 2

History 2403E Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Town Crier, Arson, Signify


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 2403E
Professor
Jeffrey Temple
Lecture
2

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England+ Europe 2403E
Lecture 2: City and Rural Life 12/7/2015 6:35:00 PM
Life in City
City Streets
city streets were dark and hidden but the major of people lived most of
their lives in the streets (compared to homes it was better to be in the
streets)
streets were a place of business
people pay property taxes on amount of land the homes take up (so
houses were narrow and tall)
the front half of house was a place of business and the back were the
living quarters
streets are place of social activity (visiting, kids playing)
people who inhabited streets were fiery public preachers, pretties (selling
random goods), performer, town criers ( people in charge of sharing town
information to the citizens), and the poor (number of poor people increased
dramatically during this time)
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CITY AND THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH
HAS ALWAYS BEEN A TROUBLE ONE (Love and Hate relationship)
Church relies on city for survival of religion but the city morals are
not up to par with the church rules (drinking, gambling)
Ranks of the poor change (no welfare system, the only source of
dependable charity is the church)
streets were filled with animals, cattle, oxen, nobles that ride horses,
animal garbage brigades
Smell of the city was insanely disgusting (animals, people, garbage , fires
all contained within the walls)
the smell also helped citizens navigate throughout the city (smell
of the bakers or fish markets)
People living in the city are mostly crafts men
GUILDS
city separated into economic communities called a GUILDS
Guilds regulates the number of people required per craft and also
regulates things within that craft (cost, weight)
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each Guild recognized the experience of people:
1. Master Craftsman (to move up: the city had to grow or a
Master Craftsman needs to pass away, and then they had to create a
masterpiece to show case their craft and the head master had to accept it)
2. Journey Man (mastered the basics of their craft)
3.Apprentice (learning the basics of your trade, live in the home
with a master)
Guilds dominate the politically and social aspects of the cities
Guilds are chosen from the merchants or crafts man status
Guilds lobby and push for their own interests within politics
Guilds provided support to craftsman’s family in the case that something
happened
Families
curious form of extended family
- families within cities were relatively small (mother, father, and 2-4
children)
- people were getting married later due to the social structure of
craftsmen resulting in smaller families
- living in the family home were also a journey man or an
apprentice) (the Master Craftsman was also legally responsible for the
journey man or apprentice)
If the journey man or apprentice did something wrong then the
Master would be the one to get charged
Sounds
critical sounds: city bells
-city bells govern the city and day to day life
- “A city without bell is like a blind man without a stick”
- bells were rung to starts the day, bells to call for church, bells that
warn of attack, bells to announce death, bells wrung in times of
celebration
Bells were wrung in different locations in different patterns to
signify what was happening
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-Bells wrung at end of day were most important, bells were wrung to warn
people that night was coming ( 3 sets of bells were wrung) (after 3rd set it
was illegal to be the streets, had a curfew)
People out on the streets late at night usually included prostitutes,
drunks
- when 3rd bell was wrung, every single fire had to be put out (joking
about arson was a capital crime)
FIRE WAS THE MOST DISASTROUS THING IN THE CITY!
Disease
- city was filthy
- if an disease settles into any cities the results were disastrous
- quarantine was the main way of dealing with disease
Placed all the people who have symptoms into a sections of town,
lock them up, and give them food and eventually open it up and see
who survived
Position of home
- said a lot about your position
-closer you were to center of city then the most important and influential
a person was
-main cathedral was at the center, beside that was the second most
important building: city hall (CITY HALL IS WHERE THE ECONOMIC
POWER IS USED)
- the center was the highest ground (in the middle of the city) and when
it rained all the slump moved down the hill
Life in Rural
- majority of people lived in rural areas
peasants: DO NOT LIVE IN CITIES!
-peasants travel to cities for business but not to live
-to be a peasants was not to be a peasants, peasant
-peasants did experience was wide range of legal freedoms
depending on what kind of peasant they were and were they came from:
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