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Lecture 6

History 2403E Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Johannes Gutenberg, Scholasticism, Scriptorium

Course Code
HIS 2403E
Jeffrey Temple

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History 2403: England & Europe
Lecture 6
Early Modern Humanism
Institution Crisis of the Church 10/26/2015 8:22:00 PM
Early Modern Humanism
-Renaissance =rebirth
-Humanitas (Latin word)
- Studia Humanitas (liberal arts)
-Umanista (Italian word)
-Ad Fontes = “Back to the Sources” (battle cry)
-Johann Gutenberg
-Scholasticism Dialectic
-Vulgate St. Jerome
Humanism: someone who was secular (non-religious), someone believe in
individualist, realist, material world, believes in the potential of humans and
mankind to control their own destiny or world
1. Historians argue that humanism is best understood as a philosophy:
-draw a dividing line between the medieval world and the
Medieval world lives under a veil of faith, categorized
themselves in corporate ways and always with a group or
Humanism was the sense of categorizing themselves in a
more personal sense
2. Other historians argue that humanism is best understood as a
-the word Humanist did not come into existence until the
16th century
-roots of the word Humanist can actually be found in the Latin
word of ‘Humanitas’ , and was used by writers in a set of cultural
values that someone derives for a liberal arts education
-Studia Humanitas: programs of study of grammar, rhetoric,
philosophy, poetry, history
If you study it you will gain Humanitas
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- Umanista: person who was a teacher of the study of Studia
-was a kind of curriculum rather than a philosophy
Majority of historians fall into this category
Humanists start by ransacking the libraries of Europe and began to collate
this knowledge
- knowledge lives on in the monastic institutions
- scriptorium: areas where teams of monks had to copy books out by
- Manuscript = manus (hand) script (writer)
-Collate: compare the old and new versions and eventually piece together
the text to get the correct version and get rid of all the errors
Johann Gutenberg
created the printing press, 1450
Makes possible the mass production of a standardized text
1453 the city of Constantinople falls to the Turks
Capital of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire
Rome technically still exists in the Eastern half but when the Turks
came Rome officially fell
The majority of citizens left before the invasion and packed up all
their books and knowledge when they left
Humanist scholars learned many ancient languages so they can
access ancient texts (Greek, Latin, Hebrew)
They flee West and bring all the knowledge and Humanists take charge
and collate all the texts
Humanists meet resistance from the universities and the church
-from universities: Scholasticism ( a kind of philosophy and
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