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Lecture 13

History 2403E Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Communes Of France, Mccarthyism, Early Modern Europe


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 2403E
Professor
Jeffrey Temple
Lecture
13

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Western History Notes Semester Two
January 8, 2018
-Diabolical Pact
Andrea Dworkin Gynocide
Women Hating (1974), p. 149
-wise women and men in all Western European countries basically traditional
-Martin Guerre freed from curse of infertility by ise oe i to…
-but new attitude emerges these people are thought to be subjects of Satan
-what causes change? universities, professors and academics
-humanism existed in tension with chief intellectual force of medieval world = scholastic
-medieval world dominated intellectually by scholastics
-scholastic philosophers of medieval era were people focused on asking questions and in this
case they asked where do these wise men and women (cunning folk) get their power from,
hat’s soure of it?
-answer = anyone who is using magical power be it for white or black magic source of that
power had to reside in devil
-if their poer oes fro deil, ho does’t gie aythig for free – there must be an
exchange or contract devil gives you something, but expects your soul, service and allegiance
in return
-so, hat egis to eerge aroud the ’s is the idea of the diaolial pat idea that
witches were those people who chose to serve devil instead of God
-emergence of the diabolical pact is what makes the witch a terrifying figure because that pact
means that the witch has become a threat to that society as a whole
-witchcraft in New World (Salem for e.g. in the colonies a separate branch of study) and
witchcraft in the Old World are very different things
-this was fundamentally something led and spearheaded by the Catholic church church drove
the persecution of witches
-ut had the hurh ee the oly people ho ere afraid, proaly ould’t hae had
persecution and witch-hunts that happeed
-witchcraft troubles monarchs because kings are ultimately claiming that they are the ultimate
represetatio of God’s authority o earth – thus, the witch is seen by the state as a traitor and
a seditious individual because of diabolical pact idea is witch conspires to tear apart and
conspire against societies fusion of fears of church + state and when those two things come
together this will generate witchcraft persecution
-governments are afraid of witches perhaps on a greater level than churches
-Malleus Maleficarum published (1486) by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger (Dominican)
perhaps most popular book dealing with witchcraft ever
-the title translates to the Hammer of Witches
-Hollywood version = book is a manual for Roman Catholic witch-hunting or a book of black
agi, ut is either i reality…
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-it does not form belief about witches and what they did, rather what it did was standardize
eliefs aout ithes ad hat they did…
-from 1400 to 1486 beliefs about witchcraft are threads around Europe + sewn into cloth in a
systematic package and standardized these beliefs synthesizes existing beliefs down into one
place
-1486 significant date because a few short decades after creation of printing press
-its publication had a profound impact on what witches did because had authoritative look to it
in 3 ways:
1) appearance of biblical or theological authority
-clear prohibition against practice of witchcraft, sorcery or divination (in both Old and New
Testaments) makes it seem like entire bible was written against witchcraft
2) seemed to have ecclesiastical authority Kramer and Sprenger are portrayed as witch
hunters and book described as witch hinting manual that Roman Catholic church had
authorized
-had a papal bull on its cover official stamp of approval of the pope pope had given Kramer
and Sprenger papal bull to take witches to trial after hunting them
-people did’t read ull as stap of approal for the to hut ithes, they read it as pope’s
stamp of approval of book
3) also appeared to have legal authority essentially wrote a book saying this is how to
prosecute a witch in a court of law filled their book with what appears to be case law
REALITY WA“: did’t really hae ay of those thigs, ut appeared to so people saw it in these
lights as a very authoritative book, thus had powerful impact in standardizing belief
-But, most important thing it did = Kramer and Spenger wrote in it that if you voiced skepticism
to existence of witches, or the impossibility of making a pact of the devil, you were a witch and
clearly trying to hide your witch-like identity or hide efforts to conspire against society
made people reluctant to doubt the existence of witchcraft
-profoundly misogynistic book when a woman thinks alone she thinks evil in other words, a
woman who thinks independently produces thoughts of evil must not be allowed
idepedet thought ad atio eause they’ll tur to side of deil ad e ithes
-ironically, in decades after 1486, witchcraft persecution actually experiences a decline because
Reformation comes about in 1517 and wars fought all over Europe after bigger fish to fry
-around 1560, great leaders of reformation pass on and fears about witches begin to decline
-***1590-1630 peak witch hunting time piotal tie i Ra’s ook – this period of time =
lynchpin between two worlds of witches existing and witches not existing (REMEMBER WHEN
YOU READ RABB)
-last person executed for witchcraft in Europe was Anna Goldi in 1782
put to death in this year (beheaded) in the Swiss town of Glarus
-her ae’s eoe syoyous ith people ho falsely ause people of ries
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-1400- is era e’re lookig at
-estimates about number of people are on a vast spectrum because estimates are hard to make
in early modern Europe lowest estimate = 40,000 people executed and the highest estimate
ever suggested (probably) by a professional academic = 9 million (between 1400-1782)
-9 million was suggested by Andrea Dworkin feminist academic she wrote Women hating in
1974 (p. 149) and she argued that fundamental characteristic of early modern world was its
patriarchy and what we see in witch hunts is a society of men that exterminate women and
essetially refers to this as a gyoide
-unlikely Dworkin believed it wanted to spark debate and get people to talk about patriarchy
in past and present
-but, a more sensible approach best estimates approximately 110,000 trials and
approximately 60,000 executions between 1400-1782 still a huge number, but again
Hollywood has taken these numbers and blown them out of proportion were also killed in
brutal and cruel ways
-trial numbers Germany 50k, Poland 15k, Switzerland 9k, France 10k, Spain + Italy
10k, Russia and Eastern Europe 4k and Scandinavian Kingdoms 5k
-Spain and Italy are most Catholic countries, but have least trials debunks claim that Church is
behind witch-hunts or most guilty of promoting them
-witch-hunts are prevalent in border lands
-with Spanish Inquisition came little persecution of witchcraft
-Russia + Eastern European numbers (4,000) ipossile to alulate there…
-territories singled out for witch-hunts = Germany, Switzerland and border territories in France
-hy’s Eglad issig o this list? – because witchcraft in England plays out differently than
witchcraft on continent
-continental, colonial and English witchcraft are 3 different things (beware of this in paper)
-why are accusation more severe in these 3 territories witchcraft seemed to be most severe in
areas of heterodox religious geography in border territories or catholic territories bordering
protestant ones in territories divided by faith religious frontier lands
-300 independent principalities make up Holy Roman Empire and are split between Catholic
and Protestant territories
-border territories with Germany and Swiss territories
-border territories hat’s eig diided are  orld ies
-shocking do’t fid protestats ausig Catholis of eig ithes ad ie ersa, hat you
find is protestants and Catholics accusing other protestants and Catholics of being witches
-core argument professor makes for why they happened: witchcraft inquisitions are intra-
communal, rather than inter-communal
-tensions within villages increase as time passes and when tensions hit a certain level inside
that community, people in that community start accusing witches witchcraft acts like a kind of
pressure release valve inside these religious communities
-witchcraft accusations are very psychological
-what will happen protestants and catholic villages will accuse their neighbours of witchcraft
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