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History 2403E Lecture Notes - Toleration

Course Code
HIS 2403E
Jeffrey Temple

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March 4, 2009
Revolt of the Netherlands
Low Countries
What did the Low Countries (Netherlands and Belgium) look like on the eve of revolt
- Traditionally they were part of the Spanish Hapsburg family
- Amalgam of 17 provinces – approximately 3 million people
oDensely populated area – highly urbanized = political independence
Rare for Europe
- Oligarchy (rule by few) - Merchant families who govern the cities
The low countries were man-made territories – taken back from the sea
-They have a solid sense of solidarity – the feel like they came together and built the Netherlands
There is a high degree of religious toleration
- The Holy Roman emperors had long allowed the Low Countries to govern themselves
States General
Like the Cortes in Spain, Parliament in Englad, Estates General in France
- Limited body of people
- One important right of power – the right to levy taxation
Belgium & The Spanish Netherlands
The revolt will result in the
10 Southern Provinces
Today they are belgium
Netherlands / Holland / United Provinces
7 Northern Provinces
This is how they will be known
Consequences of Dutch Rebellion
- Decline in the power of Spanish dominance
- Represents the emergence of a Republican alternative to monarchy
- Results in new forms of economic endeavour – they become good at making money
Dates of the Revolt
The Dutch revolt begins in the late 1560s
- Not formally recognized at “Independent” until 1648
- Those involved
“The Time of Troubles”
1) That is not what they are aiming for
a. Were not fighting for Independence, they wanted the Status Quo – the way things were
b. It gradually becomes a war of independence
Philip II
Stands at the centre of the breakdown of relations between Spain and the Netherlands
- He has a Spanish crusading zeal
- Profound sense of Spanish superiority – no respect for the Dutch
- Only wants to tax these people
Always bankrupt – but devoutly Catholic
Margaret of Parma
Philip left his sister to govern the Low Countries
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