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Lecture

English Civil War.doc


Department
History
Course Code
HIS 2403E
Professor
Jeffrey Temple

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March 11, 2009
English Civil War & The Glorious Revolution
Elizabeth was loved by the people
- How do the English people go from a love affair with their monarch to executing their monarch
The Civil War was essentially a rebellion of the Parliament against the crown
Many historians see this as social, political and national tensions being played out in this war
-The traditional view that England was destined for greatness – it was more complicated
James I (r.1603-1625)
There is nobody in England who wanted to get rid of the King
- They did want the King’s power limited – he shouldn’t chip away at the rights of the elite
oThe people did not want the Monarch to tax too much
- He had gay inclinations – he would promote a young noble and that would cost England money
Remember, he thinks he has been appointed by God – makes frequent requests for money
-Parliament gave him little money – they continually drafted up complaints against him
Charles (r.1625-1649)
- Clashed with Parliament more frequently and more intensely than his fatther
The Parliament did not get along with Charles or James – Charles had the same sense of entitlement
Duke of Buckingham
James I picked him – he becomes powerful and when James dies, the Duke served under Charles
- The Parliament did not care about these affairs, they just didn’t like the Duke’s power
30 Years War
It starts out as a religious war – so there is pressure on James I to help the Protestant cause
Anglicans vs. Puritans – Religious Tensions
One of the only countries in Europe where Religious tensions are on the rise
- Catholic vs. Protestants were not the biggest issue in this time
Puritans
More Calvinist than Calvin
- They were bothered by a range of things
oConcerned that the liturgy of the English Church has remained Catholic
oFrustrated that the English church remained profoundly Catholic
- Their strength was found in the lower levels of the Aristocracy, and Parliament
oMany Parliament members were Puritans
- James I was more fond of Calvinism – but he viewed the Puritans as the Scottish Church in English
oHe did not like the Scots Presbyterian Church – they were deeply Calvinists
He wanted to make them conform to Calvinism or run them out of England
Archbishop William of Laud
- Charles I put the power of the Church in his hands
oWilliam was a hard headed man – wanted to undermine the power of the Puritans
The religious tensions end up having a fundamental Political tension aspect to it
Great Britain
James I is the first King to bring together the Kingdoms around England
- Charles does not like the divided religious community – wanted to bring the Scottish Presbyterians into the
Anglican church
- Wanted Religious control through William of Laud
Scottish National Covenant
Document insisting on full rights of their Religious traditions
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- This was the peak of tension before the war
Triggers
1638
- Charles I continued to govern without calling the Parliament
oThe King can do this as long as he doesn’t need money – Parliament controls the money situation
How Did He Do This?
‘Ship Money
- He could not mess with old laws – so he tampered with existing laws
oIncreased the existing taxes
- The English Kings had the right (in the event of an emergency) to tax every port to build a Navy to defend the
country
oHe makes that “emergency tax” an “annual tax
oEvery English seaport outside and inland waterways – that’s where all of the cities were
The tax fell upon the middle-class, upon the merchants, lower Aristocracy – it fell upon the Puritan Sympathizers
-The taxes fall on people who have a political voice – the ones who are most capable of political involvement
oHe is taxing the people who can stand up in government and resist him
Bishop Wars (1640)
Charles was at peace, he didn’t need to call Parliament until someone invades – war costs money
- Scotland invades England from the North
- England does not have a standing army
Long Parliament (1640-1653)
- Moved quickly to address long standing grievances
- Passed legislation that said that they had to be called into existence at least once every 3 years
oOnce they are called, only they can dissolve themselves – NOT THE KING!
- Power of evaluating the performance of the King’s advisors
oExecuted Archbishop William of Laud – for not fulfilling his duty
If you want to get a message to the King – Kill one of his friends
Grand Remonstrance
List of the mistakes the King had made – and a list of how he could fix it
- List of dissatisfaction with the King’s rule
19 Propositions
June 1642
- Parliament wants to choose the tutors of the future Kings
- This way you have control over the religion of the King’s of England
None of the Parliament had any idea what to do next
- They couldn’t decide on who the royal advisors should be
- They could not decide who would be in charge of the army
James I Reaction
- Not happy with the Long Parliament
- He gains support of the people who oppose the Puritans
oHe attempts to retake Parliament by force with 400 armed men
- Poorly planned – not kept a secret He has lead an Armed Rebellion against his own government He fails
in his attack
oHe is forced to flee London because he is considered a traitor
- England is divided into 2 camps
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