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Lecture 50 – Civil War

Course Code
HIS 2405E
Barbara Murison

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Lecture 50 Civil War
Were definitely sides, but the king was not isolated
King can assembly and army and has supporters
o Needs the moderates on his sides and will have to use diplomacy
Royalists or Cavaliers vs. Parliamentarians or Roundheads
Ordinary Soldiers
o Usually follow the lead of the landlord
Political Nation
o People who are interested in politics and can do something about
o More people were aware of the political issues of the realm
Lord Macaulay
o Published in 19th century
o Classic Whig interpretation
Looking for origins of modern democracy, responsible
government, etc.
o Civil War a milestone in parliamentary democracy
S.R. Gardiner
o Saw dispute in terms if ideas
o Defenders of constitutional government and champions of religion
fighting against the crown
Some truth, most strong Puritans ended up on parliamentary
side and Anglicans in the armies of the king
20th Century
o Conrad Russell
“Parties were divided by religion”, not the same as saying
religion was the cause of the Civil War
o Christopher Hill
Marxist interpretation
Puritanism “knife and fork question”
Marxist civil war feudal aristocracy and capitalistic
o R.H. Tawney
Rise of the gentry
Shifting economic fortunes of the aristocracy
Ambitious gentry trying to change society to suit themselves
o Stone
Similar ideas to Tawney
o Cause of the civil war very complicated
o No huge division between the gentry and aristocracy
o Trevor Roper
Attacked Stone, bad statistics
Went for idea that the origins lay within division in the gentry
Declining gentry vs. court gentry who were on the rise
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