History 2405E Lecture Notes - Standing Army, Stadtholder, Ecclesiastical Court

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6 Apr 2012
Department
Lecture 56, Part 2 The Glorious Revolution
IV) Invitation, Context, Military Comparisons
James assumed that William would be landing on the northeast coast of
England
o Based on the notion that one of the Immortal Seven, Danby, had
estates there
o Would give him influence over the Prince of Orange
o English fleet waiting on the east coast
o William didn’t want to be under the control of any of the inviters
V) Invasion, Events
Lands in the southwest in Torbay (Devon) on the 5th of November
o Issues a proclamation:
Come by request of English noblemen to call a free parliament,
establish liberty of worship for everyone, save the Anglican
church and to investigate the legitimacy of the Prince of Wales
o William thought this through well, making James take the initiative,
put responsibility of provoking civil war on James
Royal army will have to fight or retreat
o November: poor campaigning weather
o James finds morale is poor and doesn’t give clear leadership,
uncertain what to do
John Churchill leads the army while the king is not there; ends
up deserting, taking some officers with him
James devastated
o Decision to retreat to London, people starting to panic
James hoped to negotiate with Prince of Orange
o Sends his wife and son to France
December 10: James leaves Whitehall, drops the royal seal in the Thames
o Captured and returned to London
o William not happy to see him back, James alive in London is not good
for William
o Arranges for James to escape on his second attempt, clears the way for
William
William invited to take over control over the government and give him the
power to call a convention parliament
o Meets in January 1689
VI) The Revolution Settlement
Options:
o 1. Mary as Queen Regnant
William likely to feel slighted
Didn’t come to be “one of the queen’s gentlemen”
o 2. William and Mary as co-rulers
Mary happy to share power with her husband
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