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History 2501E Lecture Notes - Cinco De Mayo, Monroe Doctrine, American Civil War

Course Code
HIS 2501E
Luz Hernandez- Saenz

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Nov, 29, 2012
Liberal Reforms
The New Generation:
-They were very enthusiastic about participating in the new system but as time went on individual ideas were
starting to conflict and people were less involved
-They thought with more democracy things would just be fixed but this was not the case even if it was an
improvement (sometimes you were electing the best of the worst)
-By 1850’s the new generation was in power in the new countries and they were critical of those that came before
them and they thought the system was flawed and they wanted to forget about theories of democracy and just get
things done
-They needed legal equality and a market economy, and they knew they needed to instate them and not just argue
about it
-They were critical as well of their Spanish heritage because they saw it as bad or wrong and that the problems of
the countries were brought about by the Spanish
-During this time Spain was not the model of an advanced country and they had their own problems
-The power of the church was seen as an issue as well as the influence of the corporate groups (ex: universities and
hospitals that owned properties)
-These people believed in competition and they believed in having small parcels of land for farmers so when
groups controlled large areas they thought it was a waste
-The liberal reforms were associated with wealth and advancing civilization and things became more secular
Church as a Centre of Controversy in Spanish America:
-There were wars in some countries because of issues with the church
-It was a big issue that started with royal patronage where the church was controlled by the crown but now with
independence the presidents were in control of this power (even though it was becoming less important because
of secularism)
-There was the separation of church and state which at the beginning was started because religious people didn’t
want politicians controlling the church
-The liberals didn’t like the church because it went against their principles like legal equality because the church
had its own courts with privileges, they didn’t pay taxes, they didn’t support freedom of thought/religion and they
controlled many of the schools, etc
-Education was seen as very important because it socialized the children and if they ere being taught Catholicism
was the only way this was counterintuitive to the liberal ideals
-Another problem was that the church was seen as a threat to the state which was looking for more control in this
time and the church had huge amounts of wealth in property and goods and this was attractive to politicians
-To make matters worse the governments were bankrupt making them even more desperate for the church’s
money and the church was seen as a corporation and thus they should not have the property and it should be in
the hands of small owners (promoted market economy)
-The politicians argued that the church was funding the conservative elite and they usually were at odds with the
liberals so getting their property also prevented their enemies getting resources
-The church was losing their wealth rapidly for obvious reasons like giving too much to the conservatives
-The state passed legislation gradually until they got to nationalization of property but this was harder in more well
established areas where the church had been there longer and amassed great power
-In Colombia and Mexico things were extreme with wars being fought for many reasons but the church was always
at the centre of the disagreements of these groups
The Government and Church in Mexico 1850’s-1870’s:
-In 1857 the liberals were in power and they passed laws until they had reached a constitution and behind this was
the need to weaken the church and ideals of private property and this affected not just the church but other
-The university owned property that people had willed to them and they made interest off of this like the church
was doing and the two groups were linked and it was a corporation so the liberals really disliked them
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