Enlightenment in Spanish America Nov 3.docx

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22 Apr 2012

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History 2501
The Enlightenment in Spanish America : November 2 , 2011
Emphasis in botany, science, medicine and the economy
Absolute monarchy, want to avoid politics
18th cent botanical expeditions in Chile and Peru
- Medicinal purposes
- Ask natives about uses
- Jesuit bark (malaria)
- Hipolito Ruiz Lopez
- Spanish wanted to study plants for their potential value to them
- Linear method of plant classification
- Subsidized by Spanish crown
- Jose Mutis 1783 Colombia takes years studying
- Cinchona (Jesuit bark) very valuable and only grown in the Americas
Royal Botanical Expedition, 1787 (Martin Sesse)
- Purpose was to describe and examine
- Banish doubts in medicine
- Classify hundreds of animals, insects, plants
- Leaders= scientists (French, Spanish, Dutch…)
- The very best, regardless of origin
- Pictorial representations
Alessandra Malaspina 1789
- Best minds of the time go with him
- Specialists, artists etc
- Expedition goes North
- Record pictures of natives
’78- Cook arrives
- Charters east coast of Vancouver
- Great interest in getting to the Northwest (new passage)
The Royal Vaccination Expedition
- 1803
- Inoculation v vaccination (use blood/tissue from infected person)
- Jenner cow pox, not as bad as human but still grants immunity
- Small pox epidemics in Americas= mass deaths
- Need to convince people that these preventative methods will work
- Idea= vaccinate children, inoculate child+ use tissue to pass on
- Chain of kids
- Took 20 children from Spain (poor/orphans), arrive in Cuba and start training people
- Move from colony to colony
- Public demonstrations used to illustrate success
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