Lecture Notes- Winter.docx

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15 Apr 2012
Department
Disease and the Enlightenment:
Science, Smallpox, and Scurvy November 30
Outline:
Reason and Evidence: A New Rational and Systemic Approach
o Faith in Science: As Explanation and Method
o The Environment: Arguments of Contagion vs. Miasma
The Enlightenment Attacks Disease
o Smallpox and Inoculation
o Scurvy and Citrus Fruits
The Impact of the Enlightenment on Disease
Terms:
Edward Jenner (1749-1832)
James Lind (1716-1794)
The Scientific Revolution:
New systems of understanding the physical world; laid the foundation of
modern science
Reason and Evidence: A New Rational and Systemic Approach
Reason challenged Religious Faith
Evidence challenged authority
Reason and evidence would create a better future
Science and technology would enhance society‟s control over nature
Social progress, prosperity and the conquest of disease would follow
Faith in Science
As Explanation:
As Method:
New knowledge through:
Observation
Hypothesis
Experimentation
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The Environment as a Cause of Disease:
Contagion vs. Miasma
The Enlightenment Attacks Disease
Smallpox
Scurvy
Syphilis
Rickets
“Fevers”
Typhus
Malaria
Yellow Fever
Influenza
Smallpox- The “Speckled Monster”
Variola
Caused by: smallpox virus, within a group of orthopox viruses
Forms:
Variola Major- death in approximately 30% of its victims
Variola Minor- death in approximately 1% of its victims
Variola Intermedius- level of severity between the other two forms
Transmitted by: airborne droplets; human to human
Smallpox Inoculation: Variolation- involves inoculation with live smallpox
matter
Lady Montagu spreading the word about the effectiveness of smallpox
inoculation (“ingrafting”)
Hans Sloane (1660-1753)
Inoculation as an Enlightenment Issue
Second half of the 18th Century- inoculation because popular again
perhaps due to:
New method of Inoculation
Inoculation became less expensive
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Edward Jenner (1749-1832)
Inoculated Edward Phipps in 1796
Little Cows Erupting Everywhere- An anti-vaccine cartoon by James Gilary,
1802
Vaccination safer than Variolation
Scurvy:
Symptoms:
Appetite loss
Poor weight gain
Diarrhea
Rapid breathing
Fever
Irritability
Tenderness of legs
Swelling over bones
Bleeding
Feelings of paralysis
Bleeding of the gums
Loosened teeth
Purple spots on skin
Bleeding in eye
hyperkeratosis
Cause?
Humoural Theory
Atmospheric Theory
Chemical Theory
Others?
James Lind (1716-1794)
Impact of the Enlightenment on Disease-What did it mean for fighting
disease?
Continuities:
Disease treatment still those therapies of Galen
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