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Lecture

political theories of the enlightenment

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Department
History
Course
History 1401E
Professor
Terry Webb
Semester
Fall

Description
Political theories of the enlightenment • Theory that every society was formed by the free agreement of people who came  together to achieve an end  • If you can discover the terms were being met – it is ok – but if not it is cause to  put a new society in place  • If you discovered your founding fathers founded the country in the name of  private property and these were not being met it is cause for revolution  •  John Locke – champion of this thought   • He was part of the wig party  • During the time it is wigs vs. tori’s • Wigs are very keen on individuality •  1685 – English had a new king named James 11 • Charles 11 had died and had no heir • Secretly converted to Catholicism during the civil war  • Came back to England in 1660 after Cromwell had died and the English Civil War  was over  • He was secretly catholic but in England you can not be catholic – must be  Anglican and some what protestant  • 15 years parliament argued over this but eventually allowed him to become king  • Line of succession   Charles The First   o Charles 11 James 11 o ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­ Anne  mary  • Marry is married to William of  Orange  o  James 11   o Needs a son tor carry on strong line of succession  o This kid will be raised as a catholic – changes the nature of the English  monarchy • Decide on a revolution  • Calls James Daughter who is married to William of Orange in the Netherlands  and James Flees the country  • The English dumped their king and William and Mary Take over power  • Parliament can do whatever they want – broke from the line of succession  •  Locke   • What was life like before governments  • How do you protect yourself and your property • In order to stop chaos people sit down to govern the form of behavior  • Governments need 3 things  • Legislature – make sure • Judiciary – interpret law  • Executive power – administer law  • Locke says in order to achieve these things people established a state  • Within nature people process the ability themselves – but transfer them to the  society and the society takes care of them  • James broke the social contract – trying to change the fundamental aspect of the  country  • American revolution is idea primarily social contract by Locke  •  Rousseau pops up again – connected with his book On the social contact  • Social contract between individuals •  Message was society corrupts people – the more sophisticated you are the more  separated your are from this artificial form of society  • He glorifies the virtues of the common people  • He was trying to make government for simple and smaller  • Rousseau was Swiss and in Switzerland is primarily governed by city states not a  national large government   •  Lecture 2   • Rousseau differed from Locke but both argued for the sake of the social contract • Jean-Jacques Rousseau 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778 was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th-century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought. • Rousseau's novel Émile: or, On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau's autobiographical writings—his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker—exemplified the late 18th-century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing. His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and his On the Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social though • John Locke FRS 29August 1632 – 28 October 1704), widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence. • Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as Hume, Rousseau and Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa. Contrary to pre-existing Cartesian philosophy, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, and that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception. • Parties are created through collective thinking – enlightenment thinking promotes individualism which means lack of strenuous government because people want to self government • Avery secular society based upon universal natural law etc. • 1740s – David Hume – 3 point theory on good and evil and disproves many theories of the enlightenment – leads to this change and ideas such as Rousseau and Locke • Rousseau and Locke argue that conscious and feels will always prove morally correct and you work off that • 1760s - they are reading Locke and Rousseau • 1780s – people are breaking rules and not following the rules of society because of this individualism • Why the change in culture in the 18 century • People wanted to change the status quoi • 1739 – beginning of the 18 century th th • Louis 14 became king of France in the 17 century – Louis was a champion of war – Louis died in 1714 and France was exhausted by his time in power and needed a generation of peace • He established internal peace but used it to fight external wars • 1714 – series of peace treaties – Peace treaty of Utrecht • Affects both England and other major countries • Fighting has evolved only major countries can afford to fight wars • Introduce gunpowder style weapons • Entire regiments armed with guns • 5000 percent increase in monetary value of the army • Walpole • England Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, KG, KB, PC (26August 1676 – 18 March 1745), known before 1742 as Sir Robert Walpole, was a British statesman who is generally regarded as the first Prime Minister of Great Britain.Although the position of "Prime Minister" had no recognition in law or official use at the time, Walpole is nevertheless acknowledged as having held the office de facto because of his influence within the Cabinet. AWhig who was first elected in 1701, Walpole served during the reigns of George I and George II. Some sources date his tenure as "Prime Minister" from 1730 when, with the retirement of Lord Townshend, he became the sole and undisputed leader of the Cabinet. But his premiership is normally dated from 1721, when he became First Lord of the Treasury; this was generally upheld by the contemporary press, most notably that of the opposition, who focused far more attention on Walpole than on Townshend. Walpole continued to govern until 1742; he was not only the first but also the longest serving Prime Minister in British history. • If queen Anne died Sophia and her decedents will take the thrown   • No one wanted her to been queen and Sophia dies and George her son takes over  George I (George Louis; German: Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate
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