• The concept—formally delineated by German historian Wilhelm Roscher in
1847 —remains controversial among scholars. Roscher was presaged by
Voltaire, the prominent Enlightenment philosopher who felt enlightened
monarchy was the only real way for society to advance, and by Mozart's
The Magic Flute, whose libretto was written by Emanuel Schikaneder,
which can be regarded as an allegory advocating enlightened absolutism.
• Enlightened absolutists held that royal power emerged not from divine right
but from a social contract whereby the ruler had a duty to govern wisely.
• The difference between an absolutist and an enlightened absolutist is based
on a broad analysis of how far they embraced the Age of Enlightenment.
For example, although Empress Catherine II of Russia entirely rejected the
concept of the social contract, she took up many ideas of the
Enlightenment, being a great patron of the arts in Imperial Russia and
incorporating many ideas of enlightened philosophers, especially
Montesquieu, in her Nakaz, which was meant to revise Russian law.
• In effect, the monarchs ruled with the intent of improving the lives of their
subjects in order to strengthen or reinforce their authority. Implicit in this
philosophy was that the sovereign knew the interests of her or his subjects
better than they themselves; her or his responsibility to them thus precluded
their political participation.
• However, historians debate the actual implementation of enlightened
absolutism. They distinguish between the "enlightenment" of the ruler
personally, versus that of his or her regime. For example, Frederick II, "The
Great," of Prussia was tutored in the ideas