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HIstory - Nov 27th.docx

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History 1601E
Cary Takagaki

History – Nov 27 –h Contacts with Europe  Missionaries  Traders Trade  Silk  Porcelain  Tea: First imported item from England Attempts to Establish Trade outside Guangzhoe/Canton 1759: Attempt by the British trader James Flint China in Decline Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) What made china‟s encounter with the west so different in the 19 century than the 18 century?  How many of China‟s problems came from within and how many from outside forces?  How did the Chinese elite understand the challenges they faced?  Were the forced of global capitalism and imperialism so skewed against China that different policy would have made little difference? Population growth th  Beginning of 19 Century: 300 million  Negative effects of population growth: fall in standard of living, female infanticide, trafficking of women, unemployed males (farms are sold, not enough land to cultivate)  Banner men no longer effective in war, but cannot be disbanded (too closely tied to Manchu identity)  Chronic Shortage of revenues o Solution: Frugality cut costs, but there are too many people to cut costs  Poverty increases which causes a faster decline The Opium Wars  Balance of trade between the British and the Chinese  Britain bought too many goods form China and lacked money to fund their military and to buy tea, in order to gain revenue the British sold Opium to China  Opium: traditionally used for Medicinal purposes  Opium Prohibited in China  British prohibit opium use in India Export Opium to China  1729: 200 Chests (1 chest = 133 pounds)  1800: 4500 Chests  1838: 40,000 Chests  Leads to increase in Price of Silver  The British sold so much Opium to China that the Britain were selling more Opium than they were buying Tea.  The British received Chinese gold and silver. Since the gold and silver continuously left China and the British continuously used Chinese money this lead to inflation of silver China’s Response  Ban the importation and production of opium  Outlaws the smoking of Opium  Punishment for opium dealers: 1 month of the cangue & 100 blows, 3 years of military exile  For Palace guards: 1 month of Cangue & 100 blows, Exile Opium Prohibitions fail because:  Foreign merchants, driven by huge profits, are determined to continue smuggling opium  Local Chinese officials lack resources to deal with smuggling  Demand by Chinese Opium addicts  1838: Lin Zexu: commissioned to suppress opium trade and sends a letter to Queen Victoria making her aware of the Britain‟s actions  Lin confines 350 foreign traders to the 13 factories area in Guangzhou  2.6 million pounds of Opium seized and destroyed  December 6, 1839: trade with Britain was stopped „forever‟  January 31, 1840: England declares war on China to: o To protect their trade o Protect their honour o Correct injustice inflicted on British officials & subjects in China (the ones confined in Canton) Treaty of Nanjing: Britain was defeating China so in order to maintain peace the treaty was signed  Ambassadors allowed in Beijing  Tariffs fixed at 5%  Indemnity  Cedes Hong Kong to Britain  Extraterritoriality  Most favoured clause: if China gives special treatment to one country, Britain automatically gets those treatments Taiping Rebellion  Flooding of Yangtze  Drought in Henan  Famine Guangdong Hong Xiuquan  Born in Guangdong  From Hakka Minority
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