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History notes 2.docx

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Department
History
Course
History 1601E
Professor
Cary Takagaki
Semester
Fall

Description
History notes 2 Political Division in China and the spread of Buddhism The Three Kingdoms  Wei – led by Cao cao’s descendants  Shu Han – founded by Liu Bei and centered in Sichuan  Wu – founded by Sun Quan and centered in southern China  Wars between the kingdoms would last 50 years The Six Dynasties  Brief reunification under the Northern Jin dynasty but disintegrates in 290 CE  Chinese aristocratic families retreat to the area south of the Yangzi River  Six dynasties ruled mainly from the southern city of Nanjing between 316 – 589 CE  Dynasties were ethnic Chinese, but large areas still inhabited by aboriginal peoples The sixteen kingdoms  China north of the Yangzi subjected to a large series of barbarian invasions  Series of kingdoms, most ruled by non-Chinese nomadic conquerors  Most attempted to confirm themselves to Chinese culture and administration  Ended when the Tuoba people unite northern China under the northern Wei dynasty in 439 CE Instability  In the south, central government was weak  Real power in the hands of wealthy aristocrats  In the north, tensions among non-Chinese people over Sinification  Many Chinese fled south rather than be rules by barbarians The rise of Buddhism in China  This period of disunity was also the period that Buddhism become influential in China  Growing disillusionment with Confucianism during the decline of the Han  Rise in popular and philosophical Daoism  Search for supernatural purpose to life  Daoism provided bridgehead for rise of Buddhism Concepts in Indian Religions  Buddhism comes from India  Reincarnation  Karma-law of consequences  Samsara-cycle of birth, death, and rebirth  Atman-individual soul  Brahman-Ultimate reality, the world-Soul, sat (Being) Who was the Buddha?  Original name was Siddharta Gautama, prince of the Shakya tribe. Lived around 600BCE  Preoccupied with the question of human suffering and how to stop it  Wanders for many years  Sits under a three and achieves enlightenment, becoming a Buddha, or enlightened one The Four Noble Truths  All live is sorrow  Sorrow is due to craving or desire  Sorrow can only be stopped by stopping craving  Can only be done by following the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path  Right views  Right resolve  Right speech  Right conduct  Right livelihood  Right effort  Right mindfulness  Right concentration Ideas on the Soul  Emphasized idea of an atman, or no permanent soul  Individuals made up of five components; form and matter, sensation, perceptions, psychic dispositions, and consciousness  Nirvana- Void of peace reached when karma resulting from craving is broken A religion for all  Monks and nuns could most easily achieve Buddhist goals  Ethical teachings given to those not ready to enter monastic order  Buddhism questioned caste and class distinctions  Everyone equal in the sangha, or Buddhist community Buddhist scriptures and divisions  Tripitaka (Three Baskets) – Buddhist scriptures  Theravada Buddhism – “Way of the Elders”  Mahayana Buddism – “The Greater Vehicle”  Vajrayana (Tantric) Buddhism – “The Thunderbolt Vehicle” Mahayana Buddhism  Form of Buddhism that enter China  Stress on the bodhisattva, a savior being that postpones Nirvana to help all being gain salvation  The Buddha becomes a manifestation of a cosmic force  All things a manifestation of ultimate emptiness (sunya) Buddhism enters China  Tradition says that Buddhism entered China in first century CE  Small groups in the nobility  Came by the silk road through merchants and missionaries from central Asia  Greatest missionary was Kumarajiva, who preached in the late 300’s CE The appeal of Buddhism  Southern Chinese embraced Buddhism as giving a supernatural purpose to life  In the north, Buddhism’s universalism served in uniting barbarian rulers and Chinese subjects  Emphasis on unity, a rich literature and culture all made Buddhism appealing The three Teachings  Buddhism become joined with Confucianism and Taoism as one of the “ Three Teachings”  Especially useful for addressing questions on the supernatural and the afterlife  Some tension with Chinese worldview  Extensive cross-fertilization between three traditions The Sui and Tang Dynasty The Sui Dynasty  Founded by Yang Qian (Wendi) in 589 CE when he reunited all of China  Succeed by Yangdi (604-618)  Strong central government  Emphasis on conquest and infrastructure building  Vietnam and Eastern Turks submitted to Sui Fall of the Sui  Conquests and infrastructure building led to high taxes and forced labor contributions  Unsuccessful campaigns against Korean Kingdom of Koguryo in 612 – 614  Led to huge peasant rebellions  Eastern Turks rebel  Yangdi flees to south China and is assassinated in 618 The rise of Tang  Li Shimin, a general of mixed Chinese and barbarian descent, emerges victorious  Captures Changan in 617  Establishes his father on the throne in 618  After the death of his father, he killed his brothers and took the name of Taizong The Empress Wu  Taizong was succeeded by Gaozong (649 – 683), who consolidated the empire  Empress Wu rules through puppet emperors after Gaozong’s death  Assumes the throne in 690 and rules until 706  Only female ruling “emperor”  Strong supporter of Buddhism Xuanzong (712-756)  Reign was the high point of Tang culture and prosperity  Growing financial problems  Tang forces defeated in Central Asia in 751  Beginning of era of crisis  Tang dynasty has hobbled existence for next century and a half Tang society  Tang built on innovation of earlier dynasties  Land distributed to peasants, which would return to the state to death  Officials received tax-free land  Peasants subjected to a labour tax and military conscription Tang economy  Period of great economic prosperity  Agriculture heartland shifts down from wheat and millet producing Wei and Yellow River Valleys to rice farming in the lower Yangzi River  Motivated construction of canals to shift grain northward  Extensive market regulation Tang bureaucracy  The Sui and the Tang modeled their bureaucracy on that of the Han  Recruitment based on exams that stressed Confucian learning  Based on Merit, but only rich and powerful could afford education  Set foundation for later exam system and emphasis on gaining the jinshi degree Tang administration  Location administration changed to a system of districts, prefecture, and provinces  Tang central administration set base for later imperial government up to the beginning of the 20 century  Imperial secretariat drew up polices and orders Department of state affairs  Carried out policies  Subdivided into Six Ministries  Personal, Revenue, Rites, Military, Justice and Public Works Changan  Primary capital of the empire  Largest city in the world with a population of 2 million  Built on a grid pattern  Walls were five by six mills  People from all religions and countries in Asia Lived in the city Tang influence on Asia  Tang become the model for states in Japan, Korea, Tibet, and Southeast Asia  Strong diplomatic and trade influence Foreign religions  Persian and central Asian merchants brought in Persian religions of Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Nestorian Christianity  Maintained until persecution of Emperor Wuzong in 841 – 845 Islam and Judaism  These religions came in through trade  Spread on the coasts and the interior  Muslim merchants intermarried with Chinese  Both religions survived persecutions  Islam a substantial 的 religion in many areas of china  Jewish community survived until late 1700’s Buddhism under the Tang  Time of greatest influence on China  Some Tang rulers lavishly supported Buddhism  Others bitterly persecuted it  Monasteries excluded from taxation  Daoism also important  Tang emperors claimed relationship with Laozi Buddhist Sects and Origins  Indian philosophy-faxing school  Chinese thought-tientai school and lotus sutra  Tantric Buddhism-Chen-Yen, emphasizes magic and rituals  Pore Land-faith in savior beings  Chan(Zen)-Focus on mediation Decline of Buddhism  Tang rulers aimed at close regulation of Buddhism  Mad emperor Wuzong ruthlessly persecutes all foreign religions in 841-845  Massive destruction of Buddhist organization  Buddhism loses much of vigor The Arts  Sculpture and painting influenced by Buddhist themes  Ceramic tomb sculptures  Music influenced by contacts with central Asia  Tang architecture and fashion still visible today through influence on Korea and Japan Literature  New poetic styles established foundation for traditional Chinese poetry  Great poets were Li Bo and Du Fu  Movements in literacy criticism and local histories  Chief essay writer was Han Yu(768-824) of the Guwen (old writing) movement Beginning of Decline  Tang forces were defeated in central Asia in 751  Growing Muslim and Turkic influence in Central Asia reduced Chinese Influence and power over trade The An Lushan Rebellion  An lushan was the adopted son of Xuanzong’s favourtie consort, Yang Guifei  An rebels in 755  Xuanzong flees the capital and executes his consort  Tang dynasty only regains the capital in 762 after An lushan is murdered Changes in state structure  Tax base shifts to land tax  Forced labour declined  Conscripted militias lost importance  Replaced by foreign mercenary armies  Tended to be more loyal to their generals than to the Tang state Tang’s fall  Mercenary armies ev
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