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History 1601E
Cary Takagaki

History notes 3 Week 8 Yuan China and the Mongol Empire; Korea: the Chosǒn Dynasty Yuan dynasty (1276-1368)  By the thirteenth century, China and Korea had accrued many centuries of experience with northern nomadic pastoralists who from time to time formed wide-ranging confederations that threatened and occasionally invaded their territory.  The travels of Marco Polo After centuries of living in the north of China, why did the Mongols leave their homelands? th  Late 12 century drop in mean annual temperature  Genghis Khan unifies the Mongol tribes of the northern steppe in 1206  conquers the Jurchen northern capital at Beijing in 1215 Why were the Mongols so successful against so many different types of enemies?  Although their populations was tiny compared to that of the large agricultural societies they conquered, their tactics, weapons, and organization all gave them advantages.  New military technology  Fielding a powerful cavalry (Chinese did not grow up from the horse back) 1279: the Southern Song falls and the Mongols become the first nomadic conquerors to rule all of China 1271: Khubilai Khan takes the title Emperor of China and establishes the Yuan Dynasty (“Original Dynasty”)  Mongol population (1276-1368): 1.5 million  Chinese population: 1252: 87 million 1381: 67 million How did Mongols rule a large population?  Division of society: - Mongols - semuren (Mongol allies from Central Asia & the Near East; e.g., Tibetans, Uighurs, Persians, Jurchens) - hanren (inhabitants of North China) - nanren (“southerners”; inhabitants of South China)  adoption of bureaucratic tradition of the Chinese state  rejection of the examination system (to ensure that Mongol and other non-Chinese could have places in government)  Mongols discouraged from marrying Chinese  Chinese required to speak their own languages, wear their own clothes and practice their own customs  Mongol adopted Chinese customs like Confucianism: obey the ruler Penal Code (Most severe punishments kept for the Chinese)  Only Chinese were tattooed for theft  Murder of a Mongol by a Chinese resulted in death penalty  Murder of a Chinese by a Mongol resulted only in a fine Khubilai Khan legitimatized as a Chinese emperor Chinese court ceremonial and Confucian rites revived Early 1260s: national history office established Emperor Taizu [Chinggis Khan: 1167-1227] received the mandate of Heaven and subjugated all regions  Reinstitution of the Examination System (1315)  Quotas set for government appointments: - ¼ for Mongols - ¼ for foreigners (semujen) - ¼ for candidates from North China - ¼ for candidates from South China The Mongols reinstated the civil service examinations in 1315, but opportunities for scholars were still very limited. There were quotas…On top of that, only about 2 percent of the positions in the bureaucracy were filled through the examination system… Flourishing of trade  Since the Mongols wanted to extract wealth from China, they had every incentive to develop the economy. They encouraged trade both within China and beyond its borders.  Tolerance for Foreign Religions - Nestorians - Muslims - Christians - Jews European Encounters  Italian Franciscan, Giovanni di Monte Corvino arrives in Beijing in 1294. - Baptized some 6,000 Chinese. - appointed Archbishop of Peking by Pope Clement V in 1307 - after his death in 1328 (by which time he had converted some 100,000 Chinese), all traces of Roman Christianity disappeared from China  1295 –Friar John of Montecorvino reaches Beijing) and establishes a Franciscan mission and made some converts. This mission survived until the 2nd half of the 14th century  in 1342 the Yuan Emperor received John of Marignola, a legate from the pope Westerners in Yuan China  1262 –Maffeo & Niccolo Polo, Venetian merchants reach Khanbalik (mdn Beijing) and are received by Khubilai Khan.  The Polos return with Niccolo’s son, Marco Polo, who spent 20 years in China, from 1271-92 Decline of the Yuan  Power struggles for succession to the Khan throne  Rebellions due to harshness of Mongol exploitation, corruption of state officials, hatred of foreigners, rise in prices  “Civil wars and factional violence marred the [final Mongol reigns]. The last Mongol emperor…*was+ not a strong ruler. By his reign, the central government was failing to keep order in China or even maintain a stable currency.” Groups opposing the Mongols  White Lotus (Pai-lien) Society ---- dedicated to the Buddha Amitabha, but also included Taoist ideas  Red Turban rebellion in central and south China - 1351: joined with the White Lotus Society to rebel against the Mongols - “…in 1351, a millenarian sect known as the Red Turbans rose in rebellion. The Red Turbans were affiliated with the White Lotus Society, whose teachings drew on two distinct traditions.”  White Cloud (Pai-yün) Sect ----founded ca 1100 by the monk K’ung Ch’ing-chiao (1043-1121) Koryǒ Dynasty (889-1259) Mongol Rule (1260 – 1351)  1231: Mongols invade Korea - Koryǒ falls to the Mongols in 1259  Mongols marry their daughters to Koryǒ kings, thus legitimizing their rule  Government reorganized to make Koreans subservient to Mongols  Koryǒ aristocracy become Mongolized in culture (supplanting Korean culture) End of the Koryǒ  Mongol power wanes with the outbreak of rebellions in China  Anti-Mongol Ming forces enter Korea Chosǒn/Yi Dynasty (1392-1910) Tributary Relation with Ming China rd  Tribute missions sent to China once every 3 year  Tributary missions increased to 3 times a year Adoption of Confucianism  Record of Rituals  Women – no second marriage  Buddhism is the worst -- The Buddhists live alone with their barbaric customs, apart from the common productive population; The Traditional Role of Women in Korea  Now, according to the National Code [1469], thrice-married women are listed together with licentious women, and their sons and grandsons are barred from the examinations and cannot receive posts in the censorial and administrative offices… Culture & Society  Yangban [literati: hereditary class]  Chungin *‘middle people’; petty government officials+  yangmin [‘common people’; peasants]  Ch’ǒnmin *‘base people’; slaves, outcastes+ King Sejong, inventor of the Korean alphabet in the mid 15 century Development of Korean writing system  Hangŭl  China invents movable type in the Song Dynasty, but Koreans perfect the process Week 9 The Kamakura and Ashikaga Shogunates and Civil War in Japan Regency system  rule by the Fujiwara Clan 858 – 1068  rule by the retired Monarchs, 1068 shōen  tax-free estates Rise of the Warrior  Bushi 武士 (“warrior”)  Samurai 侍 (“retainer”) th Tale of the Heike (early 13 century)  Delivered Moritsugi to the Kanto  Take him to Yui-no-hama to beheaded  All of the warriors deserted the Heike for Genji Supremacy of the warrior clan, the Taira 平  Taira Kiyomori 平清盛 marries his daughter to the emperor  An Imperial prince calls on the Minamoto warrior clan, to oust the Taira (Gempei War 1180- 1185)  The Minamoto warrior clan defeats the Taira in 1185  The emperor confers the title of shōgun 将軍 (“the supreme military leader”) on the leader of the Minamoto clan Minamoto Yoritomo 源頼朝 (1147-1199), founder of the Kamakura Shōgunate (1185-1333)  shōgun 将軍 (“the supreme military leader”)  shōgunate (military government, i.e., government of the shōgun), a.k.a. bakufu 幕府 (“tent government”)  Karakura →military capital far away from Kyoto(capital) End of the Minamoto Clan Hōjō regency  the shōgun becomes a puppet of the Hōjō regent who exercises real political power Where real political power resided  Emperor  Retired emperor  Shogun  Hōjō regent (shikken) Mongol Invasions  1268 Kubilai Khan sends an envoy to Japan addressed to the “King of Japan”  Kubilai Khan proposes that Japan buy his friendship with tribute, threatening war if Japan does not  Hōjō regent Tokimune rejects the request  1274: Kubilai Khan sends 30,000 Koreans, Chinese, and Mongols in about 900 ships  a storm scatters the Mongol's ships and as many men die in ships (some 13,000 men) as in battle  The Mongols return to Korea, their numbers reduced by 1/3.  Kubilai Khan continues to send envoys to Japan demanding that the king of Japan send envoys to his capital in Peking  envoys, sent in 1275 and 1279, are beheaded by the Japanese  1281: Kubilai Khan sends 100,000 Mongols, 20,000 Koreans, and 50,000 Chinese in about 4,500 ships  August 12, 1281, the second wave of Kublai Khan’s armada arrived with its 100,000 men  August 15 a typhoon breaks up the Mongol fleet  Kamikaze 神風 (“divine winds”) End of the Kamakura shōgunate Emperor Go-Daigo (1287-1338) VS Kamakura Bakufu Prince Morinaga (i.e., the Hōjō regents) (1308-35; Go-Daigo’s son) and its main retainers; Kusunoki Masashige (?-1336) –Ashikaga Takauji –Nitta Yoshisada ********************************************************************** By 1333 the Kamakura forces are so weakened that its main supporters switch sides and support Emperor Go-Daigo Emperor Go-Daigo VS Kamakura Bakufu Prince Morinaga (Go-Daigo’s son) (i.e., the Hōjō regents) Ashikaga Takauji Nitta Yoshisada ****
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