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Department
History
Course
History 1601E
Professor
Cary Takagaki
Semester
Fall

Description
History Notes 4 Week 11 The Creation of the Manchu Qing Dynasty 清朝 (1644-1911)  Manchus - Jurchen tribes: ethnic group from Manchuria - “The Manchus were not nomads but rather hunters, fishers, and farmers. Like the Mongols, they had a tribal social structure and were excellent horsemen and archers.”  Nurhaci (1559-1626) - Unites the Manchus - 1590: leads an embassy to Beijing and offers to help the Ming repel the Japanese - 1616: declares himself khan of the Jin Dynasty - 1618: 7 grievances against the Ming (Meanwhile…) Ming China  1644: the rebel Li Zicheng enters Beijing  Emperor Chongzhen - last emperor of the Ming Dynasty - commits suicide rather than being captured by the rebel Li Zicheng - The Ming general, Wu Sangui lets the Manchus enter through the Great Wall at Shanhaikuan (Result…)  Manchus decide to conquer all of China  Manchus bury the Ming emperor Chongzhen with honors  Manchus claim they have come to suppress rebels and to restore peace to China  the Ming general,Wu Sangui, joins them  Ming court flees south and establish a capital at Nanjing  The Ming try to buy off the Manchus, just as the Song had bought off the Jurchens, but the Manchus refuse the offer  “As the Qing forces moved south, many local officials opened the gates of their cities to surrender. Shi Kefa refused to surrender Yangzhou…The Manchu general was so angered…that he unleashed his army to take revenge on the city…”  Fall of Nanjing: 1645 Qing Dynasty 清朝 (1644-1911) Creation of the Manchu Empire  Manchus comprise 1-2% of population - Build up of wealth through landholdings & special taxes - Manchurian homeland is maintained (Chinese not allowed to settle there) - Manchus forbidden to intermarry with Chinese - Distinctions made in dress, customs, etc. (e.g., Manchu women do not bind their feet)  1645: all Chinese males forced to adopt Manchu hairstyle  Chinese to adopt the Manchu style of dress—high collar and tight jacket fastened at the right shoulder—rather than the loosely hanging robes of the Ming.  1642 heavy penalties were threatened for those who bound their feet  1645 & 1664 bound-foot women were barred from the imperial harem  1664 laws prohibiting binding of feet of girls born after 1662 stipulated punishment of relief from office if an official and flogging for commoners  law was rescinded in 1668 because the custom would not stop Banner System  Method of organizing Manchu soldiers (grouped under coloured ‘banners’)  “The Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong emperors used the banner system to maintain military control and preserve Manchus’ privileges.”  “…bannermen became in a sense a hereditary occupational caste, ranked above others in society…They were also expected to live apart from nonbanner Chinese and were not allowed to intermarry with them.”  Adoption of Ming political institutions, including the examination system  About half of the highest government positions were kept in Manchu hands  Bannermen enter into government service  Quotas for Manchus; 5 % of jinshi degrees reserved for bannermen, though they comprise only 1% of the population  70% of metropolitan positions reserved for bannermen (less than 20% for Chinese)  “Bannermen had legal privileges as well…If *a Chinese and Manchu+ was found guilty of the same crime, the Manchu would receive a lighter punishment…” The Qing at its Height th  Population growth from start of the Qing to 18 century: from 150-175 million, to 300-325 million, due to: - global warming - use of New World crops - efficiency of Qing government in providing relief in times of famine Emperor Kangxi 康煕 (r. 1661-1722)  1683: Taiwan, the last holdout of Ming loyalists subdued  could speak, read, and write Chinese  Realized the importance of persuading the Chinese that he had a legitimate claim to the Mandate of Heaven  Kangxi studied Latin, mathematics, and Western science with Jesuit tutors at his court and he corresponded with European monarchs.  …Kangxi had favored the Jesuits in court: he placed them once again in charge of the astronomy bureau, used them as his advisers in matters of cartography and engineering, and allowed them opportunities to practice their religion in Peking and the provinces.  1700: 300,000 Chinese Christian converts (out of a total population of 250 million) Accomodation  Confucian ancestor worship  Cult of Confucius  Ricci did not preach the crucifixion of Christ  Sunday as a day of rest was not possible for the poor of China  fasting impractical for the poor  avoided baptizing women in full ritual  1701: - 59 Jesuits - 29 Franciscans - 18 Dominicans - 15 secular priests - 6 Augustinians Rites Controversy  1705 Pope forbids missionaries to show the slightest tolerance for traditional Chinese practices  1706 Emperor Kangxi orders all missionaries must accept the ‘edict of tolerance,’ or leave  1715: pope demands that Christian converts give up their Confucian practice of ancestor worship  1717: imperial decree prohibits the preaching of Christianity and orders the deportation of missionaries from the empire  1722: Christianity a heterodox sect  1724: Christianity banned  “*Emperor Kangxi+ objected strongly to the pope’s issuing directives about how Chinese should behave. He outlawed Christian missionaries, though he did allow Jesuit scientists and painters to remain in Beijing.” Defining the borders  The Kangxi emperor subdues the Mongols and annexes Mongolia, thus securing China’s northern border  1689: Manchus and Russians sign a treaty defining their borders and regulating trade (Russia to Beijing once every three years, supply of tea)  1720’s: Qing establish permanent garrisons in Tibet Emperor Yongzheng / Yung Cheng (雍正帝) (1678 – 1735; r. 1722- 1735)  Christianity: - all Christian missionaries to assemble in Canton or Macao - several provincial churches converted to use as schools or as hostels o “Still, he *Yongzheng+ held back from a final ban, taking a high moral stand: ‘The distant barbarians come here attracted by our culture,’ he noted in 1726. ‘We must show them generosity and virtue.’” o “…only one missionary was actually executed in this period… [Missionary] influence waned to the point that their only remaining roles of significance at court were as directors of the astronomical bureau and as painters in the imperial studios.” Exhortations on Ceremony anthDeference  A lecture by an 18 century salt commissioner named Wang Youpu.  “His task was to convince ordinary people, including merchants and soldiers, that their lives would be better if they all would be more polite.” Emperor Qianlong 乾隆 (r. 1736-1795)  Under Emperor Qianlong the Qing Empire reaches its maximum extent  The reception of envoys from the Kazakhs. Envoy is kneeling to the ground (performing the kowtow) in front ofthe Qianlong Emperor  80% of Qianlong’s officials are Chinese  Distinction between Manchus & Chinese maintained: - Qianlong orders compilation of Manchu genealogies & histories - Promotes study of Manchu language by Manchus - Insists on maintaining Manchu customs  “Within a generation of settling in China, the banner populations were using the Chinese dialect of the Beijing area as their common language…”  “For all these displays of Chinese virtues, the Qianlong emperor still was not fully confident that the Chinese supported his rule, and he was quick to act on any suspicious anti-Manchu thoughts or actions.” Contacts with Europe  Missionaries  traders Jesuit Missionaries in China  Matteo Ricci (1552-1610) - went to Macao in 1582 where he studied Chinese - 1583: first Jesuit to enter China - 1514 the first Portuguese trading ships put in at Guangzhou/Canton - 1557: Chinese lease Portugal Macao, as a trading base  Spanish traders  Dutch Trade with England  Starts in 1635  Trade limited to Guangzhou/Canton  Chinese goods paid for with cash  Foreigners forbidden to enter the city of Guangzhou Attempts to establish trade outside of Guangzhou/Canton  1759: attempt by the British trader James Flint to trade outside of Guangzhou Trade  Silk  Porcelain  Tea Tea  first imported to England in the late 17th century  1684: 5 chests  1720: 400,000 pounds (by then considered a necessity of English life)  1800” 23 million pounds of Chinese tea purchased for ₤3.6 million th  Early 19 century: 30 million pounds were being imported LORD MACARTNEY’S MISSION–1793  Secure trade ports outside Guangzhou  Negotiate commercial treaty  Create a desire for British products  Arrange diplomatic representation in Beijing  No market for British woolens in China  limited trade in clocks, music boxes, and British curios  British imports into China covered only 10% or less of the cost of exports (mainly tea); rest paid for in precious metals Failure of the Macartney Mission  Emperor Qianlong’s letter to George III given to Lord Macartney: “I have already noted your respectful spirit of submission…I do not forget the lonely remoteness of your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea…*But+ our Celestial Empire possesses all things in abundance. We have no need for barbarian products.” th “Confucius,” a Latin rendering of Kong Fuzi by 17 century Jesuit priests Week 12 The Age of Western Imperialism; China in Decline China in Decline Qing Dynasty 清朝 (1644-1911) th th  What made China’s encounter with the West so different in the 19 century than in the 18 ?  How many of China’s problems came from within and how many from outside forces?  Does putting stress on the new challenges of Western imperialism distort understanding of this period, making the West into the actor and China merely a reactor?  How did the Chinese elite understand the challenges they faced?  Were the forces of global capitalism and imperialism so skewed against China that different policies would have made little difference? Population Growth th  Beginning of 19 century: 300 million  By 1850: about 400 million  “The traditional Chinese view of population increase was positive: growth was a sign of peace and prosperity.” Negative effects of Population Growth  fall in standard of living  female infanticide; trafficking of women  unemployed males  Bannermen no longer effective in war, but cannot be disbanded (too closely tied to Manchu identity) Emperor Daoguang (r. 1821-1850)  Chronic shortage of revenues  Solution: - frugality cut costs George Anson, 1st Baron Anson (1697 – 1762)  British admiral  Publishes account of what he feels is mistreatment by the Chinese when he tries to make repairs to his ship in 1741 The Opium Wars  Balance of trade between Britain & China The British in India  Opium: traditionally used for medicinal purposes  Opium prohibited in China  British prohibit opium use in India Export of Opium to China  1729: 200 chests (1 chest = 133 pounds)  1800: 4,500 chests  1835: 30,000 chests  1838: 40,000 chests  Leads to increase in price of silver China’s Response  1729: Punishment for opium dealers: (1 month of the cangue, exile into military) Punishment for opium d
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