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History 1601E
Cary Takagaki

History Notes Term 2Why was the Tokugawa shgunate so successful in maintaining peace and control over Japan whereas the Qing dynasty was not able to maintain peace and control over China Controlling daimy feudal warlords lordssankin ktaialternate attendance system whereby daimy were obliged to spend every other year living in attendence in the capital of Edo now Tokyosakoku isolation policyNational isolation policy adopted by the Tokugawa shgunate through a series of edicts issued from 16331639Exceptions ChinaHolland Prohibition of ChristianityRestrictions on Guns 4 class division of Tokugawa society shinkshsamurai farmers artisanscollectively called townsmen chninmerchants outcastes burakuminNeoConfucianism in Tokugawa Japan background to ConfucianismSamurai Class 67 of populationYamaga Sok 16221685 Confucian scholarbushidThe Way of the WarriorFarmers 80 of the populationMabiki cullingInfanticide in the Tokugawa periodDoes not appear to have been primarily a response to poverty ie practiced by large landholders as well as small practiced in good as well as bad growing yearsRegulations for Villagers 1643 o Concerning farmers clothing o Clothing color o Told that their normal meals must consist of grains other than rice and wheato Noodles cannot be trade Urban GrowthEdo Estimates of its population in the early 18th century run from 800000 to 1 million making it the2nd largest city in the world after Beijing Cf London 1700575000 1750675000 18009000001 millionBy 1700 56 of Japanese live in cities with populations over 100000cf Europe 2 live in cities of this sizeBy 1700 10 of Japanese live in cities with populations of over 10000 The Pleasure QuarterShimabara Kyoto established in 1641Yoshiwara Edo date 1880s1890s Approximately 20 acres in size th Mid 18 centuryAverage Life expectancy in Japan 597 yearsAverage life expectancy in England 385 yearsAverage life expectancy of a prostitute in Yoshiwara 227 years th 17 century malegeisha 1779geisha recognized as practicing a distinct profession 1920sthere were some 80000 geisha but by 1980s there were only about 100001872 Prostitute Liberation Law shgi kaih rei o debts of geisha and prostitutes to their houses canceled women free to return to their parents homes o contracts for apprentices limited to 7 years o municipal governments license and register all geisha and prostitutes1886government standardizes fees for geisha1956 Prostitute Prevention Law baishun bshi ho End of official tolerance of brothel districts o Sanctions on the act of a prostitutes enticing a customer and other activities that promote prostitution geisha were left untouched which indicates that officially there was a basic sense that geisha were not prostitutes Ukiyoe pictures of the floating worldA genre of art chiefly in the medium of woodblock prints RangakuDutch Learning1720 ban on Western books lifted except for books directly concerned with ChristianityStrains in the Tokugawa SystemPopulation increases some 50 between 1600 and 1721 about 30 million then levels off yield from taxes on agriculture peaks before 1800 Domain expenses outpace income1801 Owari province with an income of about 250000 koku was forced to borrow the cash equivalent of 127000 koku Chshs domain debts were the equivalent of 20 years of domain income Satsuma with 770000 koku had a debt of5 million koku by 1830Famines political The New Western ChallengeRussians start to expand eastward1780s Russians reach the eastern shores of Siberia1771 Russians try to open commercial relations with JapanRussians send an envoy to Nagasaki in October 1804 requesting trade with Japan but are turned down1803 American William Robert Stewart enters Nagasaki and tries to get trade with Japan fails American captain John Derby tries to open Japan to the opium trade 1815 end of Napoleonic Wars1818 England sends a vessel near Edo asking for opening of commercial relations but is rejected from 1820s whaling boats mostly American andAmerican clipper ships active in trade to and from Canton arrive in Japan seeking foodwater1825 Order to Drive Away Foreign Ships Ikokusen uchiharaireiAlso known as the Ninen nashi or No second thought law1837 The American merchant ship Morrison arrives in Japan ostensibly to repatriate three Japanese sailors who had been shipwrecked a few years before on the coast of Oregon but also with the intent of establishing trade The Japanese fire cannon and force the Morrison to leave1842 Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water Shinsui kyuyorei In 1825 it was ordered that foreign vessels should be driven away without hesitation Howeverin the event that foreigners through stormdamage or shipwreck come seeking food fuel or water the shogun does not consider it a fitting response to other nations that they should be driven away indiscriminately without due knowledge of the circumstancesOpium Wars 183942 1844the King of Holland advises the Japanese to abandon its seclusion policy 1846America sends 2 warships to Edo bay under Commodore Biddle to propose opening trade but ends in failure1848 California joins the United StatesSteam ships start to replace sailsJuly 8 of 1853 Commodore Perry arrives at the entrance to Edo bayPresident Fillmores Letter to the Emperor of Japan GREAT AND GOOD FRIEND I send you this public letter by Commodore Matthew C Perry an officer of the highest rank in the navy of the United States and commander of the squadron now visiting Your imperial majestys dominions Convention of KanagawaKanagawa Treaty March 31 1854 Treaty of Peace and Amnity Between The United States and the Empire of Japanthe Britishthe French were able to negotiate similar agreements in 1854 the Dutchthe Russians in 1855first American consul to Japan Townsend Harris procures a trade treaty in 1858 unfavourable treaties for Japan o 6 cities open for tradeforeign residence o low tariffs on imported goods o extraterritoriality 1861 Townsend Harris translator killed by Satsuma extremist th 1862 8 month Satsuma samurai wound 2 British civilians and kill a merchant Charles Richardson in Yokohama th 1863 7 month British avenge Richardsons death by bombarding Kagoshima
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