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History Lecture 08 - Nov 2.docx

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Western University
History 1601E
Carl Young

November 2, 2010 *book report: November 23 *quiz next Monday if there’s no strike! Early Japan: Yamato, Nara, and Heian Beginnings  Japanese now seen as homogenous, but likely of mixed origin  Japanese language similar in grammar to Korean, but some vocabulary and sound system similar to some Southeast Asian languages  Ainu – hairy northerners rd  Jomon culture – up to 3 century BCE rd Yayoi Culture (post 3 century BCE)  Very different from Jomon Culture  Close cultural contacts between Korea and Japan  Construction of mound tombs after 3 century CE Legends and Histories  Japan first mentioned in Chinese records dating 57 BCE  Known as the Wa people  Kojiki and Nihon shoki – complilations of native Japanese legends  Creation results from male and female deities having children The Imperial Line  Descended from the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu  First legendary emperor was Jinmu in 660 BCE  Imperial regalia of bronze mirror, ten pronged sword, and necklace of curved jewels similar to Korean styles Japanese Society  Organised into household tribes (uji)  Headed by a hereditary chief and worshipped a tribal god (kami)  Uji subdivided into occupational groups  Many uji gathered together th  Most powerful gathering founded the Yamato state in the 6 century CE Japanese Religion  Each uji and region had their gods, or kami  Worshipped in a simple manner in simple shrines  Emphasis on fertility, ritual purity, and life stages  Base for Shinto, religion Continental Contacts th  Steady flow of immigrants between Korea and Yamato until 9 century CE  Yamato often allied with Korean kingdom of Paekche  Continental influences came through this route Buddhism in Japan  Entered Japan in the mid 500s after an embassy from Paekche  Supported by the powerful Soga uji  Eventually established Buddhism in the Yamato court in 587  Buddhism was vehicle for Chinese culture, writing, religion, and concepts of the state Prince Shotoku (574-622)  Sets up Yamato state on the Chinese model  Adoption of Chinese calendar, continued patronage of Buddhism, and support of Confucian virtues in govt  Establishment of court ranks  Frequent embassies to China  Brought back new ideas and technologies to Japan Taika Reforms  Soga uji overthrown after Shotoku’s death  Emperor Tenchi (668-671) came to pwer with support of the Fujiwara family  Taiki reforms set up uniform law codes and regulations and a centralised tax system  Temporary capital set up near Osaka, but court mainly itinerant Nara (710-784)  First permanent Japanese capital  City plan based on t
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