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History Lecture 06 - Oct 19.docx

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History 1601E
Carl Young

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HISTORY 1601E October 19th, 2010 HISTORY – LECTURE 06 THE SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES… The Sui Dynasty… o Founded by Yang Qian (Wendi) in 589 CE when he reunited all of China o Succeeded by Yangdi (604-618) o Strong central government o Emphasis on conquest and infrastructure building o Vietnam and Eastern Turks submitted to Sui Fall of the Sui… o Conquests and infrastructure building led to high taxes and forced labour contributions o Unsuccessful campaigns against Korean kingdom of Koguryo in 612-614 o Led to huge peasant rebellions o Easter Turks rebel o Yangdi flees to south China and is assassinated in 618 The Rise of the Tang… o Li Shimin, a general of mixed Chinese and barbarian descent (Turkish), emerges victorious o Captures Changan in 617 o Establishes his father on the throne in 618 o After the death of his father, he killed his brothers and took the name of Taizong. The Empress Wu… o Taizong was succeeded by Gaozong (649-683) who consolidated the empire o Empress Wu rules through puppet emperors after Gaozong’s death o Assumes the throne in 690 and rules until 705 o Only female ruling “emperor” o Strong supporter of Buddhism Xuanzong (712-756)… o Reign was the high point of Tang culture and prosperity o Growing financial problems o Tang forces defeated in Central Asia in 751 o Beginning of era of crisis o Tang dynasty has hobbled existence for next century and a half Tang Society… HISTORY 1601E October 19th, 2010 o Tang built on innovations of earlier dynasties (particularly Sui) o Land distributed to peasants, which would returned to the states at death o Officials received tax-free land o Peasants subjected to a labour tax and military conscription Tang Economy… o Period of great economic prosperity o Agricultural heartland shifts from wheat and millet producing Wei and Yellow River valley to rice farming in the lower Yangzi river and further south o Motivated construction of canals to shift grain northward o Extensive market regulation Tang Bureaucracy… o The Sui and the Tang modelled their bureaucracy on that of the Han o Recruitment based on exams that stressed Confucian learning o Based on merit, but only rich and powerful could afford education o Set foundation for later exam system and emphasis on gaining the jinshi degree Tang Administration… o Local administration changed to a system of districts, prefectures, and provinces o Tang central administration set base for later imperial government up to the beginning of the 20 century o Imperial Secretariat drew up policies and orders o Imperial Chancellery reviewed orders Department of State Affairs… o Carried out policies o Subdivided into Six Ministries o Personnel, Revenue, Rites, Military, Justice, and Public Works. Changan… o Primary capital of the empire o Largest city in the world with a population of 2 million o Built on a grid pattern o Walls were five by six miles o People from all religions a
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