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History Lecture 29 Jan 21.docx

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History 2201E
Michelle Hamilton

History Lecture 29 Jan. 21 REBELLION 1885 - By 1885, Canadian surveyors are moving from Manitoba towards the northwest - Many Metis left Manitoba after 1870 in order to pursue their traditional lifestyles – went to Prince Albert - Metis assumed that the surveyors will try to do what they did 15 years earlier, so they sent petitions to the federal gov’t asking them to recognize their existing land claims and to have title of the land before the surveyors come along - Federal gov’t – John A MacDonald is in power by 1878 and stays prime minister in 1885 – ignores petitions of the Metis - Federal gov’t sets up what they call a half-breed land commission - Sets up a commission in 1884 to handle what the Metis grievances are and see where they’re living, etc. - By 1885, the Metis led by Gabriel Dumont decide to go down and get Louis Riel - Riel considers himself a prophet - As the result of Riel’s changing views, he’s lost the support of the Catholic church inside Quebec (lost relationship with priests and bishops) - Riel has also lost a lot of the sympathy of Quebec as a result - By 1885, Riel has alienated himself from the Catholic church in Quebec - Riel tries to set up a provisional gov’t in 1885 – immediately seen as illegal - The major change comes when Riel tries to take the local fort – the NWMP (northwest mounted police) are there - Meets troops at Duck Lake, and they ambush the Metis and a battle ensues - The Metis easily defeat the NWMP  12 NWMP dead and 11 wounded  Metis had 6 dead (5 metis, 1 first nations) - This victory at Duck Lake gives the Metis confidence that they can defeat the gov’t in battle, and it’s a spur to the First Nations - In 1885, Riel is appealing directly to the chiefs - Once the battle occurs at Duck Lake in the winter of 1884, it has an impact in Ottawa because they are facing an ‘Indian Uprising’ - Poundmaker and Little Pine move to Battleford hoping to get supplies, but the problem is that the settlers there assume that the Indians are coming to attack battleford  Settlers take refuge behind the walls  The Indians are starving because there is no one around, so they begin to loot  A group of Big Bear’s headmen and warriors move on Frog Lake where they have had a long dispute with the owner of the local store, and kill some whites include priests in 1885 (kill about a dozen whites – Frog Lake Massacre) - Canadian gov’t sends a force led by General Middleton  3 groups sent out - Poundmaker & Big Bear - NWMP have to go through a ravine, and Dumont has the Metis waiting  Military confrontation April 24, 1885 fought at the battle of fish creek  Metis win again  Middleton and NWMP are forced to temporarily withdraw - Otter attacks Poundmaker in May – his camp is sleeping at Cut Knife Hill, and is attacked while sleeping, and yet his group still beats the NWMP - The following week, Middleton and his clan come to the batoche - Riel says that God wants them to have a battle with Middleton at Batoche - Me
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