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Medieval Europe - October 29th.docx

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History 2401E

Medieval Europe - October 29 , 2012 th th Changes & Continuities: Western Europe in the 9 and 10 Centuries, Feudalism: Overview of Today’s Lecture - Feudalism o Emerged in response to muslim raids o Refers to the decentralization of political authority o Decentralization in this authority encompasses judicial and administrative o Not a complete step backwards though - New invaders and feudalism - Vikings & Colonization - Feudalism—elements Feudalism—definition and timing - Definition of feudalism (decentralization of political, administrative and judicial governmental functions): political system based on bonds of loyalty between a lord and vassal; it was a military and political system - Strictly contractual relationship, could be nullified if one party does not meet requirements of contract or obligations to the other - When did it arise? Possibly by the late eighth or early ninth centuries (Treaty of Verdun, 843) - No king should have vassals in another kingdom, would undermine authority - By 9 century, feudalism is entrenched in Charlemagne’s land - Although the idea of a nation around a leader was the political system, feudalism was the reality New Invaders & Feudalism - Muslim raids o 9 and 10 century raiders o Attacked Sicily to gain advantage over byzantine empire o Captured and held for a century or so o Reached Rome by 843, country side decimated by these battles and raids o Expelled by the byzantine empire by 915 - Magyars (Hungarians) th o Came from Asia, raiding western Europe from 890’s into the 9 century o Spend over 20 years attacking western Europe until they reach France o Continue to raid Europe until they are defeated by Otto I o Colonized what is now known as Hungary - Vikings (Northmen): Danes, Norwegians, Swedes (Varangians) o Devastate western Europe, act as the stimulus to feudalism o Raids undermined the economic and social groups o Earliest raids occurred in the 780’s o By 834, had destroyed much of Ireland, set up posts on coats of Ireland to send parties from o Mass murders, pillaging, raping, committed these violations on targeting monasteries and convents because they were vulnerable - Why were Vikings so successful? o By the time people got their armies together, the Vikings were gone o Vikings would always fl
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