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The Enlightenment.docx

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History 2501E
Luz Hernandez- Saenz

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Nov, 06, 2012 The Enlightenment th -There were important political changes and the Hapsburgs in the 17 century were not doing well and by the late 1600’s they had their last king Carlos II of Spain and he was mentally and physically challenged and he had no heirs -There was the question of who would be king and the first Bourbon monarch was Philip V of Spain in 1713 who was a Frenchman interested in Spain’s colonies (many other countries were interested) -They claimed they had the right to the throne by distant blood relations and this led to a war over who would be a the new monarch of Spain and the French were heavily opposed by the English (scared of Spanish/French alliance) -The agreement after the wars made Philip V the king with the condition the two countries would never join together and a number of concessions to the British (ex: British allowed sending merchandise to Spanish ports) -The Bourbons brought in new ideas from the enlightenment in France and they reorganized Spain and its colonies accordingly to their rules (two viceroys were not enough to rule the expanding colonies) and there was a growth in the military bethuse all the European countries were modernizing their forces and Spain did the same -Before the 18 century crime and punishment had an unclear sense of why they were punishing a crime in a certain way (ex: In England more than 200 crimes punishable by death) -There was a lot of ingenuity put into causing pain as seen with the iron maiden and now these were seen as unnecessary and over the top (if someone was to be put to death why not just kill them?) and the idea that under torture people would tell the truth was shown as false because people would say anything to get the pain to stop -Beccaria was an Italian writer who asked for less brutal punishments and more reasonable punishments -The prisons were for people who owed debt or were awaiting trial or execution and in this time more and more jails were used for holding a variety of criminals for a variety of times (more effective and reasonable) -In Spain the influence came but the authorities were very careful when it came to writings criticizing politics and the government so they were more exposed to pragmatic writings showing new techniques for doing things and on the sciences (Bourbons wanted to regain Spain’s importance internationally) -The main work that was critical in all areas was the work of a monk named Feyjoo who wrote volumes with cited sources and he was controversial because he attacked traditional sources that were a common knowledge base -In some cases works that were forbidden in some countries (ex: Buffon’s writings in France) were allowed in Spain -There were also smuggled books and some were stopped by customs run by the inquisition and the banned books were then read by the inquisitors and they were shared from there -In the Americas there are a number of botanical expeditions and this was a way Spain furthered science there -The ideas were to classify the flora and fauna of the colonies and they wanted to find commercial resources and medicines so there were pragmatic objectives (these were carried out by scientists who just wanted to research) -In 1777-1788 there was an expedition in Chile and Peru and it is clear these were not fast jobs and they had to paint all findings to record them so artists were brought along to (have collaboration with European countries) -They were after Jesuit Bark which was a medicinal plant used to help with malaria and there were a few varieties and this expedition had over 2000 samples with 2000 illustrations that came together in a 10 volume work -Jose Mutis went to Colombia in 1783 and he was a Spanish botanist and he focused on anything with commercial values and minerals and he talked regularly with Linnaeus (father of taxonomy) -The most ambitious expedition was the Royal Botanical Expedition in New Spain in 1787 and they found thousands of new plants when they were ordered to go and catalogue all the useful flora -Another was the expedition by the Italian Alessandro Malaspina who went to the Americas and Pacific Islands -In 1791 they were ordered to change plans and go to the Pacific Northwest because Spain was afraid of the Europeans being in their territory and they wanted to see what was in the north and claim it (went to BC/Alaska) -There are many writings from these explorers and we have the first paintings of natives in BC but Spain could not make claims in the north because their territory was too big to control and in 1803 there were the first vaccines -The Balmis expedition was sent by the crown to bring the vaccine to all the colonies and it was transported by injecting orphan children and taking them and using their puss to inject the next person and there was 5% mortality from them but in later years mortality had gone down 80% because of them -Before there were two viceroyalties but in the 18 century the population and territory were bigger so they made new ones called La Plata, Peru, New Grenada, and New Spain and this was more manageable (Chile left out because of the Andes making it to difficult to maintain contact) as part of the Bourbon reforms Nov, 06, 2012 -In Europe by the 18 century there was a consolidation of states under absolutist monarchies whic
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