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Economic Modernization: Ideology, Society, and Politics 1880-1920

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History 2501E
Luz Hernandez- Saenz

Lecture 2627Jan 1217 2012 Economic Modernization Ideology Society and Politics 188019201 The new ideologies positivism and social Darwinism a Context y Development of various science thy 18 century began seeing use of statistics y Society is much more secular now o Start seeing things in more economic term o Society starts to improve o Society measures wealth not religion or family aspects b Positivism y Theory of knowledge y Sees society as an organization y Emphasizes observation and experimentation y Pragmaticlooked for progress o Industrializationthink in terms of wealthmaterialistic society y Rejects speculation and unanswerable metaphysical questions y Empirically verified knowledge is the sole type of human knowledge y Method i emphasis on observation and experimentation ii search for laws of phenomena regarding society o Development of sociology the study of society y Metaphysicsbranch of philosophy concerned with ultimate nature of existence what is what sort of things exist in what category in what structure c Social Darwinism y Concept of Darwin applied to society o Knowledge in biology applied to society y Founder Herbert Spencer y Herbert Spencer looked idea of survival of the fittest y Reach conclusion that ability to control nature and the environment y Hierarchy evident and different in each country o Used to justify numerous things ex dictatorship conquered land y Argentina and Bolivia didnt have a very high hierarchy d The idea of race thy Developed during 19 century o Concept of race and economic differences begin to show o Africa is being colonized at this timeseen as being weak o Justifies that Europe can control Africabelieved that they are superior who will bring civilization y Democracy for only a small group o Believe natives are too lazy to workused this as a justification to forcing them to work o Natives seen as being primitive and needs to change that o Europeans believed they were different and needed to that civilize the natives and Africans y Idea of barbarism rural vs civilized city e Social Darwinism applied to Latin America y Argentina o Carlos Bungecivilization and progress is in the city and the backward people are in the rural areas o Joaquin V Gonzalezthe great advantages of Argentina is not having inferior ethnical elements o Jose Ingenierosthe white race is superior gradually the Indigenous will assimilate or disappear slowly y Bolivia
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