3427E: History of the Holocaust. 01/20/2014
Ball State Conference.
Due Feb 3 .d
Choose from bibliography or research paper.
710 pages long.
Double spaced, 12 point font, Times New Roman, include a title page.
Footnotes or endnotes.
2 professional reviews at least a page long; photocopy them and hand them in with book review.
Find on uwo lib web page ▯ databases ▯ jstore.
Has to be at least a page long.
Will discuss these in the review.
Novels = fiction.
Avoid memoirs and other primary sources; use a secondary source.
Read the intro and conclusion to see what the author is arguing.
Will help you hone in on the arguments of the book.
Asses the reviews; are they fair? Is my assessment of the book similar to the review’s? why?
No personal pronouns. 3427E: Ordinary Germans. 01/20/2014
Section in Niewyk called ‘Victims Experiences’; read those.
Read through the survivors accounts online.
Don’t have to read all.
We will share the stories we read and what we’ve learned from them.
Basically read whatever interests you but make sure it’s about Jewish victims.
Only asks about the sweet smell upon questioning.
Was minding his own business.
People are afraid of defying the SS officers, whether they know their assumptions about them killing people
who helped Jews was true or not.
This guy was important; he occupied an incredibly high position and the SS held no jurisdiction over him.
If the SS officer actually executed this civil service man, the SS man would be in a lot of trouble.
He was most likely lying; wouldn’t further antagonize someone you afraid of because they had a gun.
Did this confrontation even happen?
Why doesn’t he try to give the woman water again the next day?
This is an absolution story; he tried once and failed but that still takes the onus off of him because he’s a
What Did Normal Germans Know?
It’s hard to know exactly.
Historians agree that while it is not blatantly obvious that Nazis are murdering Jews, that there are ways to
find this information out or reasons to suspect had individual Germans cared enough to inquire. 3427E: Ordinary Germans. 01/20/2014
There was opportunity to ask questions when most Germans care to ignore them.
Nothing really started happening until the 40s.
Failed boycott (Apr 1 ).
Violence of Gleichschaltung (coordination).
Nazis are trying to maintain the power they’ve acquired and consolidate it over a larger area.
Violence aimed at political opponents and communists.
Nazi propaganda failing.
SD reports are how historians gage public opinion.
Ordinary Germans aren’t taking to heart Nazi propaganda messages about Jews.
Public not joining in antiSemitic attacks initiated by the party.
Attitudes of German = complacent; aren’t antiSemitic but don’t defend Jews either.
Nuremberg Laws (Sept).
Sense of relief for Jewish and nonJewish popn’s in Germany.
Set of rules that can be followed.
Created to satisfy Germans who are worried about the radicalism of the Nazi party. 3427E: Ordinary Germans. 01/20/2014
Olympic games (period of quiet).
Moral insensitivity grows.
It has taken longer than the Nazi party had hoped, their propaganda is now taking effect.
SD reports show a jubilance in that the German public are asking for more antiSemitic laws to be instituted.
Apart of a broader xenophobic prewar feelings; Germans just hating on foreigners like Poles just as much
Anschluss of Austria.
Onset of warlike conditions and measures increases preexisting xenophobia and persists this us vs. them
Still existing in a broader antiforeigner sentiment and not just antSemitism.
By 1941, the Jewish pop’n has been successfully excluded from the German pop’n.
Some Germans praise this.
Others have a negative reactions to this; not very Germany, very seedy and not classy or proper.
Increasing isolation and atomization of society.
Part of broader xenophobia. 3427E: Ordinary Germans. 01/20/2014
Maintaining social link as protests.
Some nonJewish Germans will make an effort to buy their tobacco from their Jewish tobacconist or greet
them in the street or give up your street for them in street cars etc.
Intro of yellow star brings spike in suicides of Jews…
Sources of Information:
Soldiers come back home on leave and though a censorship is in place it can’t catch everything and people
are made aware of things happening in the east as well as soldiers home on leave talking about their
Foreign slave workers.
Brought from France, Holland, etc. and brining them to Germany to work.
Try hard to keep them segregated form German workers but not always.
Opportunities arise to discuss what’s happening in the east.
Germans aren’t supposed to listen to this, can be executed for doing so, but some Germans still do.
Dropped over via airplanes onto cities.
Soviet union invaded. 3427E: Ordinary Germans. 01/20/2014
Yellow Star introduced.
Jews are forbidden to emigrate from the Reich.
The point at which, depending one which historian you’re reading, murder becomes a viable answer the
Jews in the East and the answer to all Jews.
Apr 1 .
Germany to be Jewfree by the end of June.
Hitler has been saying all along that he wants to rid Germany of the Jews.
Nothing new but this policy is now clearly being implemented now and we might see Germans saying that
their govt actually mean it…they didn’t believe it was actually going to happen.
People start standing up for their local Jew of Jewish friend. Hitler and Goebbels address this by saying
they also know good Jews but Germans must be tough and strong and remember that Jews in general are
an evil and corrupt people.
One or two good apples doesn’t meant the whole bunch shouldn’t be destroyed.
Rumor that Germans in America have to wear swastikas.
Affecting German international image.
Reports of hundreds of thousands of Jews being murdered in the east. 3427E: Ordinary Germans. 01/20/2014
Really shocking and surprising that they’re public knowledge.
Rarely see any reports that people are being gassed; report generally on Einsatzgruppen and other
Many people believe these are casualties of war.
No sense that this is a means to kill all the Jews in Europe.
Never referred to as extermination camps.
One of these key years in when Germany starts to be pushed back; the war begins to turn against the
Germans and people start to examine their actions a little more closely and start to say they aren’t going to
do this anymore.
Street in Berlin; supposed to be the final roundup of German Jews.
Last contingent of Jews in Germany are valuable factory workers = factory roundup!
In Berlin, Jews are arrested and some are married to Aryan women and some are Mischlinge or have
Aryan wives hearing their husbands are arrested and they go to Gestapo HQ and protest and ask what’s
See a group of women who get angrier and angrier; protest strikes a cord; refuse to leave until their
husbands are released; gather in their streets in a peaceful protest; SS and Gestapo arrive and threaten to
fire upon them; women stand their ground; ultimately SS not given order to fire on Aryan women and
Goebbels has ot back down; international press gets ahold of it; Goebbels has to release prisoners; 30+
prisoners released some from Auschwitz.
Intermarried Jews in Germany never attacked or asked to leave again after this.
Shows the power of the Aryan and the ordinary German; they care about these women and they have
rights that can’t be violated.
There is a large group of the