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Lecture 4

Lecture 4- National Policy.docx

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History 2125F/G
Peter Krats

HIST 2125f National Policy: Lecture 4 September 27, 2012 National Policy - Creating Canada (BNA Act) o Names Ottawa the capital - Bank Act of 1871 o Government controls currency, continues/expands “centralized” banking (few firms/many branches) o Prohibits foreign ownership of banks o Strong regulation of banks and bank charters o Dominion Note Act of 1970 says government paper if less than $4.00 and private currency ends in 1930 - Physical Expansion o 1867 still small, our motto is “from sea to sea” o First step: seize lands from First Nations and Metis and when they complain, they hoped to use force to push them to the Pacific o Rail: close the Eastern “Gap”  First rail built was intercolonial railroad, public sector railway  For British Columbia to join, were promised a railway built to join them to rest of Canada so 1871, they agreed and signed  CPR: N.P. rich contract (huge amount of money at time)  25 million was contract won by Montreal company, sales land, tax breaks, 25 years no Western competition was promised, east railways  Last spike put in place 1885  City of Vancouver grows quickly with introduction of railroad o Wanted to build two more railways o 1890s William MacKenzie and Donald Mann bought rights to one railway, borrowed enough money to buy small length of rail, went to government and proposed a national railway o Government – to keep Quebec City happy – created railway from Manitoba to east (public) and Prince Rupert made private railway from Manitoba West o Boom in Prairies, Maritimes, Northern Ontario o Well-funded by the government (45% of government expenditures) plus a good majority of economic development and debt (which were all directed to railways) - Controlling the West o A government-ordered taking of the land (checkerboard style) o For settlers to expand farms, were given free plot but had to buy next plot because they were staggered/surrounded by owned land o Started advertising land and homes for Europeans to come live in Canada; the “last best west” with homes for millions o Immigration to Canada immense o Needed at least $300 to be able to establish themselves out west; half would arrive but not rich enough so they can’t settle; forced into cheap labour - New Staple created, new farm frontier  farm equipment HIST 2125f
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