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January 18 - Stages of Italian Fascism.docx

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Western University
History 2145A/B
Robert Ventresca

Stages of Italian Fascism 1. Creation of the movement, 1914-1919: from revolutionary socialism to revolutionary nationalism 2. Rooting in the political system, 1919-1921: extra parliamentary and parliamentary politics 3. The seizure of power, 1922-1925: March on Rome and Mussolini as semi-constitutional PM 4. Construction of the Fascist Dictatorship, 1925-1929 5. The long duration: radicalization and entropy, 1930-1945 The March On Rome: October 1922 Prefects – local government official, appointed by the central government – in place in Italy  Part of the government didn’t move against the fascists because they agreed with the fascists over the socialists  Some were afraid of whether or not they could handle the fight  Judges (legal system) – went easy on the fascists as opposed to the socialists because they were 1) intimidated or 2) sympathetic to their cause The Tired Old King: Victor Emanuel III Army in Italy is the Royal Army – Regio Escercito – could have tried to put down the fascist movement Fascists make it sound like a revolution (we have ceased power) but in reality, accounts tell of normalcy (business as usual) Sturzo* Idea that things would get better - Dictatorship in Italy doesn’t exist until 1925 Fascist Italy is like a “broken compass” not being different from other parties (swinging back and forth between being the same as before and being radical) ex. Made racial laws against their own Jewish people, but then later made the army focus on a rescue effort of saving the jews and keeping them from German hands Defenders of the Fascist Revolution: The Squadristi 1923 Acerbo – education act – compulsory religious education is endorsed by Mussolini (independence of Italy made it at war with the church so why would Mussolini want to involve the church once again?) he is gaining support and consent (you don’t have to love him/join the party but you’re giving him consent) *middle upper class, even lower classes are pleased by this Squads aren’t happy to see Mussolini acting like an old traditional politician Muss. Sowing the seeds for the “cracks in the foundation” of the fascist state Making a series of compromises (church, army, industry) from revolutionary aimsLateran Accords: Making Peace with the Vatican, 1929 – treaty between mussolini’s government (Italy) and the Vatican (Vatican city as we see it today is a product of the Mussolini government) the pope is sovereign – muss. Has restored the pope to sovereign authority internationally (Vatican had been wanting this since 1870/) *concordat Dispute over youth groups fascists believe that groups should only be to learn about fascism etc, church says that groups should be about rel
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