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Jan 11.docx

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Western University
History 2145A/B
Robert Ventresca

Jan 11/11 Revolution Against Revolution The Rise of Fascism -fascists say one thing and do another thing -some violent revolutionaries and some more conservative *-revolution and reaction- fascism is one reaction to Bolshevik socialism *-fascism- offensive to people, insult, people think it means oppressive, intolerant, repressive, tyrannical Fascism in History -the fascio- is the tie that binds a bundle of stick -Mussolini associates his party with this -symbol of strength and authority -the fascio is a tie that binds- collective strength, organization, idea, identity Blackshirts, Brownshirts, Greenshirts: National Variants of Fascism -communist manifesto- no fascist manifesto -debate- is fascism an ism/ideology?- no core set of unifying things -Harold Laski (politital scientist) says fascism can’t be defined-not like other isms -Soviet argument- fascism is an agent of bourgesieou capitalism reacting to socialism- defensive of capitalism, don’t worry about definitions, it is a mask of power *-fascist minimum/generic form of fascism- is there a defining set of principles of fascism?- ex. anti-Semitism is fundamental to Nazism, but in Italy anti-Semitism is non-existent *-political novelty- something unique, different, new that the fascists are offering -economies are capitalist- not laissez-faire capitalist though What is Fascism? A Working Typology A) Ideology and Goals: -Synthesis of nationalism and socialism: preaches national revolution versus class struggle *-core idea that all fascist movements have -socialism/Marxism preaches the end of the nation-state- international/anti-national- ex. Marx says workers of the world unite- message is that your primary identity resides in your social class -nationalism- wants to promote, not destroy nation- identity is in your nation *-they are national-socialists- still want change for the good of their nation- ex. national revolution- radical, revolutionary nationalists -putting those two ideologies together- novelty of fascism -Creation of a new nationalist authoritarian state that rejects traditional principles or models (ex. liberal democracy) -want to create something new and different *-Positive view and use of violence and war -value struggle -necessary for national struggle/revolution *-provides a justification for the use of violence and war -Foreign policy goals: empire, expansion and radical change in nation’s status vis-à-vis other nation- states **-Organization of regulated, multi-class and integrated national economy- national economy- national corporatism -fascists don’t believe in leaving the market alone- what is good for a certain company is good for the country- nationalist principle, national interest in maintaining bank, company, etc. -corporatist economy *-in practise this will seem much more difficult than on paper B) The Fascist Negations: *-Anti-liberalism -anti-individualism -emphasis on the collective- good of the nation, your individual freedom cant challenge this -justify this by saying you as the individual are only important if you fit with the national common good -anti-democratic- multi-party system, right to vote -justify banning all political parties by saying that they have the real democracy -Anti-Communism -Anti-Conservatism -Fascism is willing to join temporary alliances with conservative sectors of society- ex. army, industrial capitalist C) Style and Organization: -Mass mobilization- organization of the masses: cross-class, nation-wide; inter-generational -Militarization of political style: a mass party militia -ex. blackshirts, brownshirts, greenshirts- uniformity, unprofessional soldiers, militia -Emphasis on the aesthetic structure of mass rallies, parades- creates a political liturgy to emphasise emotions and mysticism *-political liturgy- way of organizing prayer, worship -trying to cultivate a national religion through mass rallies *-for the communists paradise is here on earth- materialist, fascists- their language is mystical- new kind of religion -Cult of youth and cult of masculinity -Tendency towards authoritarian, charismatic, personalized style of individual strong man *Paxton’s Five Stages of Fascism 1) The creation of movements (fascist movements) 2) Their rooting in the political system (movements) 3) Their seizure of power 4) The exercise of power (how they govern) 5) The ‘long duration’- radicalization or entropy (chaos, disorganization, something loses focus and direction, things come apart) -all fascist regimes that come to power with radicali
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