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History 2145A/B
Robert Ventresca

Jan 18/11 The Tired Old King: Victor Emanuel 3 -the courts let the fascists off, not the socialists though when they cause trouble- they like the fascists- agree with their ideas -the king could have tried to supress the fascist rule- king was fearful, shrewd, thought it was better to invite Mussolini into power than to fight him -cant ignore fascism anymore because they are a presence on the ground Mussolini as Statesman *-“business as usual”- fascists -on the cover of Time magazine- caption is ‘Benito and Italia Bella’ -there was hope the parliament would be restored -some blackshirts were radical- wanted to see a radical reconstruction -when Mussolini first came to power there were members from other parties in his cabinet -not a dictatorship in Italy until 1926 *-idea of a broken compass- the fascists are swinging back and forth- ex. conservative, traditional at one point, radical at another point Defenders of the Fascist ‘Revolution’: The Squadristi -makes concessions in laws and policies -ex. in 1923 he agrees to enacting compulsory religious education, Italy previously didn’t want to see the Church involved in people’s private lives and public spaces- compromises one of his own principles- he is anti-clerical -Mussolini is gaining consent- winning the support *-Mussolini makes a series of these compromises with the Church, army , industrials- this helps to build consent and explains why he survives in power for so long, sewing the cracks for this fascist state -he restores order, stability, makes compromises, but also has to tame his party and the revolution Lateran Accords: Making Peace with the Vatican, 1929 -treaty between Mussolini’s government and the Vatican- formal diplomatic agreement – Concordat *-creates Vatican city- this is a sovereign territory- restored the Pope to a position of sovereignty -‘Reconciliation Street’- connects spiritual Rome (religious) with secular Rome (Mussolini’s state) -Sturzo- Catholic popular party leader- goes into exile after the party dies *-Church will enjoy an autonomous state in the fascist state- can teach what they want and have their own organizations -ex. when Mussolini tries to pass a law saying jews cant marry others even if they have converted- the Church says no we decide who marries who -conflict with the Church and Mussolini’s fascist state A Voice Crying in the Wilderness: Giacomo Matteotti *-in study key -he was a socialist politician -honourable, sticks to his principles -criticised fascists -June 1924 Matteotti has a speech about how fascists are corrupt and not democratic -Matteotti kidnapped and assinated in June 1924- political assassination- “Matteotti Affair” -assassinated by fascist thugs- was Mussolini involved? -how will the Mussolini respond?- will he punish thugs, restore order? Will he ignore it? -not necessarily what Mussolini is doing about this, it is what people around him are doing -Avventine Secession- (avventine is a hill) the socialists leave parliament- boycotting the parliament as they do not see it as legitimate, protesting -they set up their own offices and systems- trying to knock Mussolini out
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