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History 2145A/B
David Norton

Hist1403E January 25, 2012 Lecture 25 TOPIC Society: Russia and Italy Russia  Education o Stalin is more determined than Lenin to enforce education. o Stalin was keen on improving the citizens’ knowledge of technology, and send them overseas to gain international knowledge. o He felt that exams would be a deterrent, and removed them completely. He was more hands-on. o Female teachers were paid the same salary as males. o He liked the idea of the British uniforms – it would build a sense of Russian identity. It was seen as a way of uniting the people. o 1933 – Commissariat of Education  The purpose is for the members to check all the schools to make sure that they are teaching the right thing (no books on religion), ensured pro- Russian culture.  Youth o Komsomol (An acronym)  Male and female institution, aged 15-23.  In the beginning it is a volunteer organization to encourage the ideas of Bolshevik life. It was fun and involved games, travel, etc. (very similar to Hitler’s youth).  There were 9 million members by the beginning of WWII.  Older teens were responsible for organizing, rallies, meetings, and events, that were pro-Bolshevik.  Women and Family o There is no organization for women that is party of the Bolshevik government. o In rural areas, women were given no opportunities. Men were always given first choice. There was an image of women as drones on society. o Feminist Revolutionaries  Sofia Peroskaia  Born in 1853 in the height of the Tsar’s time and eventually hung at the age of 28. She was the daughter of a general in the Russian army. She came from a very elitist background.  As a teenager, she became rebellious and a revolutionary. She moves a revolutionary movement for women, called “Land and Liberty.” The government was uncomfortable with the concept.  At 26 she formed a second group that deems itself a terrorist organization. She is found to be involved with the plot of the assassination of the Tsar. She was sentenced with treason and sentenced to death.  Koncordia Samoilova  She was during Lenin’s reign (around 1917) and was the daughter of a newspaper editor (Petrograd). She came from upper-level society and presumable well-educated.  She was on good terms with members of the Orthodox Church.  In 1913 she organized a womens day to be held in Moscow and St. Petersburg, where women could protest with what they were dealing with in life (inequalities). She was arrested on women’s day and sent into exile in Siberia.  In 1917 there was another women’s day (it is said that she either snuck out of Siberia, or she had contacts in St. Petersburg). She organizes a march, heading to the Winter Palace (she was not actually in the marc
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