PoliSci1020E February 1, 2012
Terror: Russia and Italy
1500’s – Ivan the Terrible – Oprichniki (His Secret Service)
Oprichniki = “separate men;” they were apart from society and did what he told them to;
known for torturing people, wore black robes and rode black horses.
A more elite group selected by Ivan.
1700’s – Peter the Great – Okrana
Makes St. Petersburg a beautiful place; insists that canals be built (like Amsterdam).
Travelled to Western nations, but gained a reputation as an alcoholic. He became an
Insisted that anyone with labour/construction knowledge move to St. Petersburg.
First to use the name Tsar Peter; he centralizes his forces.
1917 – Lenin – Cheka
The Cheka was an extremely vicious, brutal, and terrifying authority.
Had a terrible connotation.
1922 – Stalin – Ogpu
Same function and fear factor as Cheka, just a different name.
He then put his friend in charge so that he couldn’t be held responsible. (E.g. Have to
deal with families trying to find their lost members.)
In 1930, thousands of Ukrainians died of starvation in a famine. Stalin didn’t want to be
associated with this. So he changes the name again.
1934 NKVD 1946 MGB 1954 KGB
o A chemist and could speak over 50 languages (Stalin’s friend).
o Put in charge of the police force, because he wanted to test his chemical methods
Stalin wouldn’t allow