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1403E - Lecture 27.docx

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Western University
History 2145A/B
David Norton

PoliSci1020E February 1, 2012 Lecture 27 TOPIC Terror: Russia and Italy Russia 1500’s – Ivan the Terrible – Oprichniki (His Secret Service)  Oprichniki = “separate men;” they were apart from society and did what he told them to; known for torturing people, wore black robes and rode black horses. o Streltsy  “to shoot”  A more elite group selected by Ivan. 1700’s – Peter the Great – Okrana  Makes St. Petersburg a beautiful place; insists that canals be built (like Amsterdam).  Travelled to Western nations, but gained a reputation as an alcoholic. He became an unwanted embarrassment.  Insisted that anyone with labour/construction knowledge move to St. Petersburg.  First to use the name Tsar Peter; he centralizes his forces. 1917 – Lenin – Cheka  The Cheka was an extremely vicious, brutal, and terrifying authority.  Had a terrible connotation. 1922 – Stalin – Ogpu  Same function and fear factor as Cheka, just a different name.  He then put his friend in charge so that he couldn’t be held responsible. (E.g. Have to deal with families trying to find their lost members.)  In 1930, thousands of Ukrainians died of starvation in a famine. Stalin didn’t want to be associated with this. So he changes the name again. Name Changes: 1934 NKVD  1946 MGB  1954 KGB  Yagoda o A chemist and could speak over 50 languages (Stalin’s friend). o Put in charge of the police force, because he wanted to test his chemical methods of toture. Purges  Stalin wouldn’t allow
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