Hist1403E March 19, 2012
Germany After the Third Rich
October 1944 - Moscow
Churchill went to visit Stalin in Moscow (before the war was over) to try and plan how
the countries would handle Germany after the war. The meeting was somewhat secret so
that they could receive the best possible end of the bargain.
Still before the end of the war,
February 1945 - YALTA
Concept of inviting Germany up introduced.
July 1945 - Potsdam
Truman is now involved, wanting to restore Europe with American assistance.
The main focus of this conference the boundaries of Germany would be after the war.
2. Nuremberg Trials (August 1945)
Making the German people now feel responsible for the Holocaust and the war. It
assured the people that they were not at fault as general people/civilians.
3. Deportation and Resettlement
Many Germans attempted to flee their country, except like the Jews, they were rejected
by many countries.
After the war, some people refused to come back, and some were refused entry. Who
could be trusted (by the new government) to be allowed back?
The countries involved in fixing Germany (Britain, France, USSR, USA) remove any
Hitler or Nazi influence in the countrry (e.g. currency, possessions, shrines, buildings,
etc.). Trouble is, some were accused of being Nazi who were actually not, and were
treated and punished as Nazis anyways.
If there was any suspicion of Nazi involvement, the person was not allowed to hold any
position of leadership in the new nation.
5. Divided Germany
When dividing the country, the four countries decided that if they could cooperate, they
would run the country - Berlin is divided in half (USA and USSR). Stalin/the USSR
claimed the largest part of Germany. The name of the country will remain the same.
1949 - German Democratic Republic
The USSR's communist section of Germany. It was not democratic at all.
- Federal Republic of German (Democratic)
The Western, USA-run part of Germany, presented with much more freedom.
Basic Law - the idea that the East and West Germany were only temporary situations,
and after Stalin died out, the two would be united again. However, Stalin wanted to
constantly remind the world that it was him who (supposedly) won the war against
Germany. It had a Bill of Rights in the Western but not Eastern part. Eventually, people
began making escape attempts to the West. The people elected their own leadership, and the elected President would serve a term of only 2 years.
6. Political Parties
Christian Democrats (1949 - 1969)
A very statesman-like man, Konrad Adenaur (1949 - 1963) he managed to establish
a fair degree of acceptance and reliability. The country was now allowed to enter the UN.
Social Democrats (1969 - 1974)
Willy Brandt was looked at with more skepticism. He claimed that to succeed, the
country would have to look towards the ideologies of the Eastern bloc.
These nations had the remarkable ability to rebound.
Italy and the Fall of Fascism
It is still unknown who killed Mussolini - Italian or Nazi?
To 1943 - Mussolini More Unpopular
Helpless as a military leader, the Italians