Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: American Psychiatric Association, Substance Abuse, Internet Addiction Disorder

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Tuesday, March 17, 2015
Chapter 14: Use and Abuse of Psychoactive Drugs
Addictive Behaviour
Drugs: any chemical other than food intended to affect the structure or function of the
body
Psychoactive drug: chemical that can alter a person’s consciousness or experience
Intoxication: state of being mentally affected by a chemical (literally, a state of being
poisoned)
Habits that have gotten out of control, with a resulting negative impact on a person’s
health
Addiction: psychological or physical dependence on a substance or behaviour,
characterized by compulsive desire and increasing need for the substance or
behaviour and by harm to the individual or society
Habituation: similar to addiction, involving the routine use of a substance, but w/o the
level of compulsion or increasing need that characterizes addiction
Five characteristics typically associated with addictive behaviours:
1) Reinforcement
2) Compulsion or craving
-compelling need to engage in the behaviour driving the individual
-relates to loss of control
3) Loss of control
-can’t block the compulsion or craving
4) Escalation
-more and more of the substances is needed to produce the same high
-due to physical tolerance
-more of the substances is used to get more of the effect, to achieve the same
high
5) Negative consequences
-serious negative consequences: difficulty with relations, health problems
-interfering with a persons function
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Tuesday, March 17, 2015
Development of Addiction
Many behaviours are addictive but most people who engage in them do not develop
problems
If a person becomes dependent and tolerance develops, the behaviour is likely to
become a central focus in the persons life
No single cause of addiction (characteristics of people with addiction)
-Individual, environment, and substance/behaviour combined
-Individuals with increase trouble dealing with stress may be more susceptible to
addiction
-Some people may also have a genetic predisposition to addiction
Examples of Addictive Behaviours
Compulsive/pathological gambling
Compulsive exercising
Work addiction
Sex/love addiction
Compulsive buying/shopping
Internet addiction
Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
“Psychoactive” ~ a blanket term to include drugs and other substances
Drugs = “chemicals other than food that are intended to affect the structure or function
of the body
Substance abuse and dependence aren’t really used anymore
DRUGS INCLUDE:
Prescription medicines (e.g., antibiotics and antidepressants)
Over-the-counter (OTC) substances (e.g., alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine products)
Illegal substances (e.g., LSD and heroin) "
Substance Use Disorder (DSM-5; 2013)
Pharmacy: art of compounding drugs from various substances
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Tuesday, March 17, 2015
Pharmacology: science and study of drugs
Substance abuse: a maladaptive pattern of using any substance that persists despite
adverse social, psychological, or medical consequences. The pattern may be
intermittent with or without tolerance and physical dependence
Physical dependence: the result of physiological adaptation that occurs in response to
the frequent presence of a drug; typically associated with tolerance and withdrawal
Substance dependence: cluster of cognitive, behavioural, and physiological symptoms
that occur in some who continues to use a substance despite suffering significant
substance-related problems, leading to considerable impairment or distress; as know
as addiction
American Psychiatric Association (APA) combines the previously defined categories of
substance abuse and dependence into a single condition:
Substance use disorder involves the following*:
1. Developing tolerance: lower sensitivity to a drug so that a given dose no longer
exerts the usual effect and larger doses are needed to the substance. When a
person requires increased amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effect or
notices a markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount, he or
she has developed tolerance.
2. Experiencing withdrawal: physical/psychological symptoms that follow the
interrupted use of a drug on which a user is physically dependent; symptoms may
be mild-life threatening. In an individual who has maintained prolonged, heavy use
of a substance, a drop in its concentration within the body can result in unpleasant
physical and cognitive withdrawal symptoms.
3. Taking the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally
intended.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use a substance (new)
5. Unsuccessful efforts to cut down or regulate substance use
6. Spending a great deal of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or
recovering from its effects
7. Giving up or reducing important social, school, work, or recreational activities
because of substance use.
8. Continuing to use the substance in spite of recognizing that it is contributing to a
psychological or physical problem.
9. Repeated use resulting in failure to fulfill obligations at work, school, or home.
10. Repeated use resulting in hazardous situations
11. Continued use despite social or interpersonal problems.
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Document Summary

Chapter 14: use and abuse of psychoactive drugs. Compelling need to engage in the behaviour driving the individual. Relates to loss of control: loss of control. Can"t block the compulsion or craving: escalation. More and more of the substances is needed to produce the same high. More of the substances is used to get more of the effect, to achieve the same high: negative consequences. Serious negative consequences: dif culty with relations, health problems. Individuals with increase trouble dealing with stress may be more susceptible to addiction. Some people may also have a genetic predisposition to addiction. Examples of addictive behaviours: compulsive/pathological gambling, compulsive exercising, work addiction, sex/love addiction, compulsive buying/shopping, internet addiction. Drugs include: prescription medicines (e. g. , antibiotics and antidepressants, over-the-counter (otc) substances (e. g. , alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine products, illegal substances (e. g. , lsd and heroin) Substance use disorder (dsm-5; 2013: pharmacy: art of compounding drugs from various substances.

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