Health Science 1001B Notes
Lecture 1 p. 2-31
WHO Definition of Health – state of complete physical mental and social well-bring and not absence of
disease or infirmity
Ottawa Charter – resource for everyday life, emphasizes social and personal resources as well as
- Expanded idea of health, living life fully with vitality and meaning
- Determined largely by life decisions and how life is lived
- Dynamic process of change and growth
Wellness Dimensions and Continuum
1. Physical Wellness – healthy eating, exercise, learning about disease, is getting regular
checkups etc. Influences quality of life (personal sense of physical and mental health-health
related quality of life – enables work, play, relationships) and life expectancy.
2. Interpersonal/Social Wellness – Effective communication skills, developing capacity for
intimacy, support networks. Requires community participation.
3. Mental/Intellectual Wellness – openness to new ideas and critical thinking to learn new
4. Occupational Wellness – personal satisfaction derived from career/career development.
Attaining a work-life balance.
5. Emotional wellness – Optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control, and ability to share feelings.
Requires monitoring feelings, identifying obstacles, finding solutions to emotional problems.
Closely related to feelings.
6. Environmental Wellness – personal health depends on planet health – violence pollution
(light, noise). Learning about and protecting from hazards, taking actions to minimalize
7. Spiritual Wellness – having a set of guiding beleifs that giving meaning to life, involves
capacity for love, compassion, forgiveness, altruism, and fulfillment. Core of wellness.
Reading p 2-31
Integrated Pan-Canadian Healthy Living Strategy
- 2002, improve health outcomes and reduce health disparities by 2015
- Healthy Eating goal: increase the proportion of people who make healthy food choices by 20%
- Physical Activity Goal – Increase proportion of physically active Canadians by 20% (30 min or
- Healthy Weights Objective –Increase 20% people with a body weight index of 18.5-24.9
Health Issues for Diverse Populations
Sex and Gender: issues divided into sexual issues – such as an increases susceptibility to toxins in
cigarettes and gender issues – such as men not going to the doctor as much as women
Ethnicity: Sickle-cell anemia in African populations, Tay-sachs disease among European Jewish
communities, aboriginals – higher infant mortality, 1.5 times higher heart disease, 3-5 times diabetes
type 2, 8-10 times higher rate of tuberculosis
Income and Education: lower wealth = higher infant mortality and morbidity, some diseases include
HIV, hepatitis C, traumatic injury, diabetes, heart disease, eating poorly, obese, poor in wealthy
neighborhoods are healthier than poor in poor neighborhoods
Disability: 1 in 7 have a disability, inactivity and overweight, more depression
Geographic Location: higher death in rural areas (1/5 live in rural in Canada) less physically active, less
seat belts, less screening for preventative medicine, LESS likely to be diagnosed with cancer, LESS
stressed, stronger sense of community,
Sexual orientation: engage in risky behaviors, drug use, likely to attempt suicide, or contract HIV/AIDS,
substance abuse, suicide, depression
What influences Wellness
- Health Habits – regular exercise, balanced diet etc.
- Heredity and Family History – Genome – set of genetic material in cells, Gene – basic unit of
- Environment – air you breath, water you drink, home and workplace conditions, community
standards, tobacco smoke? UV radiation? Alcohol or drug abuse within the family?
- Access to Health Care – improves quantity and quality of life, vaccinations, screening tests,
Getting Serious About Health
- Examine Health Habits
- Choose a target behavior
- Learn about it
- Find Help
Motivation to Change?
- Examine pros and Cons of change
- Boost Self Efficacy – belief in your ability to take action and perform a specific task. Locus of
Control – figurative place a person designates as the source of responsibility for the events in his
or her life – Internal – in control of their own lives, External – factors are beyond their control
Visualization and Self – talk – visualize yourself engaging in new healthier behavior, use an
internal dialogue you carry on with yourself to increase confidence
Identify and overcome barriers
Infectious Diseases – Communicable from one person to another – tuberculosis, diphtheria, influenza,
common cold, HIV AIDS
Chronic Diseases – develop and become worse over a period of time, caued in part (and sometimes) by
lifestyle factor – Cancer, heart disease, stroke
Life Expectancy and Major Health Threats
- Health threats in 1900s – infectious diseases – lack of clean water, poor sewage removal, living
in close quarters, unsanitary food preparations, growing trade between countries
- Tuberculosis, pneumonia
- Sources of infectious diseases were soon discover, easier to control spread of disease, public
health becomes more important
- Adoption of vaccinations and development of antibiotics allowed for the control of mortality
- People expect modern medicine could conquer all illness, belief holds true today
Women – 83 years, men 78 years – Life expectancy
- TODAY in Canada, Chronic diseases are the largest health threats in Canada – Cancer, heart
disease and stroke
- Risk factors fall within the realm of lifestyle choices
- Best action is prevention – ex. Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death, followed by
poor diet, inactivity, and alcohol use
Life Expectancy in Canada
- Among highest
- Most health regions are in western Ontario
- Life expectancy UP, Unemployment DOWN, level of education UP, concentration of immigrants
Science Vs. Health Promotion
- Must be clear and unequivocal
- Health problems require action now, science provides excuses
How to Reach Wellness
Who definition of health state of complete physical mental and social well-bring and not absence of disease or infirmity. Ottawa charter resource for everyday life, emphasizes social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities. Expanded idea of health, living life fully with vitality and meaning. Determined largely by life decisions and how life is lived. Wellness dimensions and continuum: physical wellness healthy eating, exercise, learning about disease, is getting regular checkups etc. Influences quality of life (personal sense of physical and mental health-health related quality of life enables work, play, relationships) and life expectancy. Interpersonal/social wellness effective communication skills, developing capacity for intimacy, support networks. Requires community participation: mental/intellectual wellness openness to new ideas and critical thinking to learn new skills, occupational wellness personal satisfaction derived from career/career development. Attaining a work-life balance: emotional wellness optimism, trust, self-esteem, self-control, and ability to share feelings. Requires monitoring feelings, identifying obstacles, finding solutions to emotional problems.