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Lecture

Chapter 8 - Cancer.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
Shauna Burke

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Chapter 8: Cancer Cancer: - Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells - Tumor – a mass of cells with no physiological purpose - Benign tumor – only dangerous if it interferes with other body functions - Malignant tumor – cancerous, can spread to surrounding tissues (metastasis) - Second leading cause of death in Canada (following heart disease) - 45% of men and 40% of women will have cancer in their lifetime - Aging populations (89% of people are diagnosed at 55 years of age) Young Adult Cancer Risk: - Canadian Cancer Society (2009) report on young adults (15-29 years) - More females than males are diagnosed with cancer but slightly more men have died from cancer Most Challenging: - Unknown risks - Rare cancer types - Aggressive behaviour - Delayed diagnosis and treatment Signs and Symptoms: - Lumps in neck, breast or testes - Isolated pain - Fatigue Suggestions: - Regular physical examinations - Prevention and screening (pap tests, HPV vaccination) - Awareness of bodily changes - Research on risk factors Role of DNA: - Oncogene: if mutated, over-activated, can be cancer causing - Tumor suppressor gene: normal function to control cell growth - Mutagens – substances that cause mutations in DNA - Carcinogens/cancer inhibitor – mutagens that cause cancer Lifestyle and Cancer: - New evidences show that lifestyle factors are related to modifications in DNA - 50% of all cancers may be preventable Dietary Factors: - Alcohol consumption - Obesity/physical activity: not correlated to BMI but correlated to fat consumption - Poor diet, exercise habits plus obesity = ~ 22% of all cancer deaths Environmental Toxins: - (benzene, lead, PAH, ionization agents, exposure to UV) - Tobacco use (both cancer inhibitor and promoter) ( ~30% of all cancer deaths, 85% of lung cancer cases) - 87% of lung cancer cases can be prevented by avoiding tobacco exposure and exposure to smoking can cause a decrease risk of several other cancers Skin Cancer: Melanoma - Easily detected and highly curable (when detected early) - Exposure to ultraviolet rays - Common causes – sunburns and suntans Types: Non-melanoma: - 81,300 peoples will be diagnosed - 320 people would die (0.39%) - Most common cancer case (1/3 of all cancer cases) Melanoma: - 5,800 people diagnosed - 970 people will die (16.7%) - Melanoma accounts for only 6.7% of skin cancer and yet causes 75% of all skin cancer deat
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