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Chapter 16 - Tobacco Usage.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 16 – Tobacco Usage Info from Reading: - Most smokers are young adults ages 18-25 who say they only drink at parties or when they are with their friends who smoke (dangerous because “occasional” smokers are less likely to quit) - Each year, about 1 million people quit smoking, but 43% will relapse. It has been said that it takes the average smoker 3.2 quit attempts before actually stopping - Smoking rates of aboriginal youth are more than double the smoking rate of other Canadian youth Nicotine Addiction: - Nicotine stimulates the release of epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine from the brain - At low doses, nicotine can act as a stimulant (increasing alertness, concentration, rapid information processing, memory and learning in adults but in teens who smoke, opposite effects will occur) - Most commonly, nicotine relieves withdrawal symptoms - Studies show that smokers experience milder mood variation than non-smokers while performing long, boring tasks - Relapse rates similar to alcoholics and heroin addicts - Social and psychological forces combine with physiological addiction to maintain the tobacco smoking habit - Genetic factors may play a larger role than social and environmental factors in tobacco addiction. The way a person body metabolizes nicotine greatly influences the individual’s susceptibility to addiction. - The earlier a person begins smoking, the more likely they are to become heavy smokers - Compared to adults, adolescents become heavy smokers and develop dependence after fewer cigarettes Health Hazards of Cigarette Smoking: - Negative effects on nearly every organ in the body and decreases overall health - Related to more than two dozen diseases and conditions - Contain > 4000 chemicals, at least 40-50 that are carcinogens or co-carcinogens and/or irritate the tissue of the respiratory system - Smoke contains carbon monoxide in concentrations 400x greater than safety threshold in workplaces - Added sugars that are supposed to produce a more desirable taste produce acetaldehyde, increasing addictiveness and is a carcinogen - Some additive are intended to make side-stream smoke (used to convince non-smokers to smoke, in social situations) - Canada is a world leader in cigarette testing - Many smokers think that switching to a “low-tar” or “low-nicotine” cigarette is a safe alternative; there is no such thing as a “safe cigarette”. Smokers often compensate for the lack of nicotine by taking longer drags and inhaling deeper or more frequently. - Menthol cigarettes are bronchodilators; making the smokers lungs open wider and allowing for deeper drags The Immediate Effects of Smoking: - The beginning smoker has symptoms of mild nicotine poisoning: dizziness, faintness, rapid pulse, cold and clammy skin and sometimes nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. - Stimulates the cerebral cortex, innervating the secretion of neurohormones that alter mood. Also stimulate adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline. - Long-term Effect of Smoking: - On average, smokers live 10-15 years less than non-smokers - Cardiovascular disease (specifically coronary heart disease *most widespread cause of death for cigarette smokers), respiratory disease such as emphysema and lung cancer - Smoking reduces the amount of HDL in the blood and creates lesions or roughness in the arterial walls, promoting plaque deposits and subsequent myocardial infarction (heart attack) - Smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer - Research has also linked smoking to cancers of the trachea, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, larynx, pancreas, bladder, kidney, breast, cervix, stomach, liver, colon and skin. - Other serious effects of smoking include: ulcers, impotence, reproductive health problems, dental diseases, diminished physical senses, injuries, cosmetic concerns, economic effects and osteoporosis Gender and Tobacco Use: - Canadian men are currently more likely than women to smoke, but women younger than age 17 are becoming smokers at a faster rate than any other population segment - More Canadian women now die each year from lung cancer than from breast cancer - For both men and women, tobacco use is associated with increased incidence of sex- specific health problems (men: erectile dysfunction, women: reproductive organ diseases, thyroid-related disease and depression) - Men usually relapse due to work stress, where as women are usually relapsing due to depression or concerns of weight gain Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS): - Commonly called second-hand smoke - Third-hand smoke = smells and residue that is present on clothes or furniture etc... Consists of: - Mainstream smoke – exhaled by the smoker - Side-stream smoke – coming from the burning end of the tobacco product - Side-stream smoke contains higher concentrations of toxic and carcinogenic compounds (at least 2x the nicotine and tar) - Nearly 85% of the smoke in a room where someone is smoki
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