Health Sciences 1001A/B Lecture Notes - Allied Health Professions, Demon, Health Belief Model

10 views11 pages
Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Health Sciences
Course
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Professor
Page:
of 11
Health and Exercise Psychology
What is Psychology?
- The study of behaviour and mental processes
What is Health Psychology?
- Devoted to understanding psychological influences on how many people stay healthy,
why they become ill and how they respond when they get ill
- Health psychologists study these issues and promote interventions to help people stay
well or get over illness
- “Wellness” at the core of health psychologists conception of health
- (balance among physical, mental and social well-being = optimum state of health)
- Concerned with all aspects of health and illness across the lifespan
Health Psychologists Focus On...
1. Health promotion and maintenance
- How to get children to develop good health habits
- How to promote regular exercise
- How to ... to get people to improve their diets
2. Prevention and treatment of illness
- Teach people how to manage stress effectively
- Help individuals adjust to their illness and / or learn to follow their treatment regimen
3. Etiology and correlates of health and illness
- Etiology the origins or causes of illness (or health)
- Interested in the behaviour and social factors that contribute to health or illness
- Can include alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise and the wearing of seat belts and
ways of coping with stress
4. The health care system and the formulation of health policy
- Study the impact of health institutions and health professionals on people‟s behaviour
- Develop recommendations for improving health care
The Mind-Body Relationship: A Brief History
Earliest times (<4th Century):
- Mind and body considered a unit
- Disease arises when evil spirits enter the body
- Evil spirits can be exorcised through the treatment process (“trephination” and other
rituals)
Hippocrates (4th Century):
- Ascribed disease states to bodily factors (“humoral theory”); believed these factors had
an impact on the mind
- Went against the evil spirit theories
Middle Ages:
- Supernatural explanations of illness dominated (treatment = torture, prayer, „good
works‟)
Renaissance:
- Growth in scientific understanding and the technological basis of medical practice;
medicine looked to bodily factors rather than the mind
- Exclusion of mind and focus on body
Frued (1856 1939)
- Rise of modern psychology; link between unconscious conflict and physical disturbances
Psychosomatic Medicine (1930‟s +):
- Linked personalities to specific illness
- Bodily disorders caused by emotional conflicts
- Many of these ideas persist today despite several criticisms
- Laid groundwork for change in beliefs about the relation of the mind and the body
Now Known That:
- Physical health is interwoven with the psychological and social environment
- Staying well is heavily determined by good health habits and socially determined factors
(stress, social support)
- The mind and body cannot be separated in matters of health and illness
- Adequate knowledge of what makes people healthy is impossible without knowing the
psychological and social contexts within which health and illness are experienced
- Mind-body interaction is one of many factors that spawned the field of health psychology
The Biopsychosocial Model in Health Psychology:
- Health and illness consequences of biological, psychological, and social factors
- Figures prominently in health psychology research and clinical issues
Biomedical Model:
- Illness biological malfunction
- Governed thinking of most health practitioners over the past 300 years4assumes a mind-
body dualism, is reductionistic
- Emphasizes illness
Advantages of Biopsychosocial Model:
- Macrolevel processes (social support, depression) and microlevel processes (cellular
disorders, chemical imbalances) interact to produce a state of health or illness
- Emphasizes health and illness
Systems Theory:
- Change in one level will effect change in other levels
- Practitioners must understand social and psychological factors that contribute to illness
What is Health Psychology Training For?
Careers in Practice:
- Medicine, allied health professional fields (social work, occupational therapy, physical
therapy, public health, dietetics
Exercise Psychology:
“The journey of a thousand miles starts in of your feet”
Exercise Adherence:
- Adherence: sticking to or faithfully conforming to a standard of behaviour in order to
meet some goal
- Despite the numerous benefits associated with exercise, many people still do not exercise
regularly
Are people sticking to it?
- Majority of the population is not active at levels sufficient to result in health benefits or
disease prevention
- Approximately 20-50% of adults who begins an exercise program withdraw within the
first 6 months

Document Summary

The study of behaviour and mental processes. Devoted to understanding psychological influences on how many people stay healthy, why they become ill and how they respond when they get ill. Health psychologists study these issues and promote interventions to help people stay well or get over illness. Wellness at the core of health psychologists conception of health (balance among physical, mental and social well-being = optimum state of health) Concerned with all aspects of health and illness across the lifespan. Health psychologists focus on: health promotion and maintenance. How to get children to develop good health habits. How to to get people to improve their diets: prevention and treatment of illness. Teach people how to manage stress effectively. Help individuals adjust to their illness and / or learn to follow their treatment regimen: etiology and correlates of health and illness. Etiology the origins or causes of illness (or health)