Class Notes (839,092)
Canada (511,185)
Health Sciences (2,117)
Shauna Burke (271)


7 Pages

Health Sciences
Course Code
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

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cancer: overall  Abnormal and uncontrollable growth of cells  Tumour  a mass of cells with no physiological purpose  Benign Tumour  only dangerous if it interferes with other body functions  Malignant Tumour  Cancerous, can spread to surrounding tissues (“ metastasis”)  Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Canada second to heart disease  45% men and 40% women will have cancer in their lifetime  aging population  people live longer and get exposed to more cancer causing factors- 89% diagnosed over 55  young adult cancer risk  Canadian cancer society (2009) report on young adults (ages 15-19)  F>M diagnosed with cancer but slightly M>F died from cancer  Most challenging in this group o Unknown risk factors o Are cancer types o Aggressive progression o Delayed diagnosis treatment  Signs and symptoms: lumps in body (e.g., neck, breast, testes); isolated pain In their body; fatigue  Suggestion: o Regular physical examination o prevention and screening (e.g., pap tests, HPV vaccination) o awareness of bodily changes o research on risk factors  role of DNA  oncogene: if mutated, over activated,cancer causing  tumour suppressor gene: normal function to control cell growth  Mutagens-substances that causes mutation in DNA (any form of substances  Carcinogens/ cancer initiator - Mutagens that causes cancer  Not all mutations cause cancer  Lifestyle and cancer  New evidences shows that lifestyle factors are related to modifications in DNA  ½ of all cancers may be preventable o dietary factors  alcohol consumption  obesity/physical activity: not correlated to BMI but correlated to fat consumption  poor diet + lack of exercise + obesity = ~22% of all cancer deaths o environmental toxins (ex. Benzene, lead, PAH (forom of hydrocarbon incompletely burned hydrocarbon), ionization agents, exposure to UV)  tobacco use (both cancer initiator and promotor) o ~30% of all cancer deaths, 85% of lung cancer cases  87% of lung cancer cases prevented by avoiding tobacco exposure  colon, rectum, kidney cancers can also be caused by tobacco use skin cancer  Easily detected and highly curable  When detected early  Exposure to ultraviolet rays  Common causes - sunburns and suntans  Types:  Non-melanoma - Basal and squamous o Most common cancer ~ 1/3 of all cancer cases (CCS, 2007)  Melanoma - more dangerous/ deadly form  Prevention  Avoid long term overexposure to sunlight  Avoid blistering and peeling sunburns  See p. 257 „Core Concepts in Health‟ for more tips  Detection  ABCD Screen Test  Statistics  Skin cancer estimates for canada in 2012 (Canadian cancer society) o Non-melanoma  81300 PEOPLE WILL BE DIAGNOSED  320 PEOPLE WILL DIE  0.39% OF THOSE DIAGNOSED WILL DIE o melanoma  5800 people will be diagnosed  970 people will die  16.7% of those diagnosed will die o melanoma accounts for only 6.7%of skin cancer cases yet 75% of all skin cancer deaths o Almost 50x more likely to die of melanoma than non-melanoma o >90% of skin cancers caused by sun exposure o Risk doubles  5+ sun burns o Increasing in both men and women o 2nd most common cancer for Ontarians ages 15-34 o Melanoma is the most common form of cancer for young adults 25-29 years old and the second most common form of cancer for young people 15-29 years old – Skin Cancer Foundation  Melanoma  Starts in the melanocytes  What are melanocytes? o Located in the top layer (epidermis) of your skin o Produce melanin (skin color pigments) that darken with UV exposure- tanning! o Can cluster together to form moles  malignant melanoma: severe, progressively worsens  ABCD SCREEN o Acronym for ways to identify abnormal moles o A: asymmetry – one half of the mole differs from the other o B: Boarder – jagged, irregular edges o C: colour – colour of the mole varies throughout, a new colour appears, and/or there is more than one colour o D: diameter – larger than a pencil eraser and/or has increased in size o E: evolution  changes in any of these areas over time (itching bleeding, tenderness) o F: feel  tending to feel hard or lumpy o G: gross  if it ooses or bleeds  facts  Cases of malignant melanoma are more often found (but not limited to): o Men – between the shoulders and the hips o Women – arms and legs  Are you at a higher risk? o Blonde or red hair o blue eyes o Fair complexion  ** Don‟t assume you are not at risk if your features do not match those  also skin that burns or freckels easily  don't assume you're not at risk if your features don't match those  aboriginals and latinos when found often have worse cases  It is normal to have many moles but people with 50+ moles are at greater risk  It is normal to develop new moles during your late teens and early twenties – but pay attention!!  Some may be benign but if they differ from other moles on your body take precaution and get a medical opinion.  Melanoma will often start out as a scab or sore that does not heal. o It may bleed or itch.  Artificial tanning quiz T/F o Artificial tanning is safer than sun tanning  FALSE: tan = damage to skin cells; in some cases tanning equipment is even more dangerous as it can emit UV rays up to 5x greater than the sun o Artificial tanning equipment protects you from some forms of cancer by ↑ Vitamin D levels  FALSE: majority of tanning equipment emits UVA rays only – only UVB rays provide Vit D o It is not safe for children and adolescents to use artificial tanning equipment  TRUE: WHO recommends no person under age 18 should use tanning equipment - exposure to UV rays in early years greatly increases the chance of developing skin cancer later in life o A base tan from artificial tanning does not protect you from sun burn  TRUE – a tan has the same effect as a sunscreen with SPF 2 or 3 – inadequate for burn protection o There is no connection between skin cancer and artificial tanning  FALSE: primary cause of skin cancer is UV light exposure – sun or artificial tanning equipment  The truth about tanning beds o People ho use indoor tanning devices are 75% more likely to develop melanoma then those who don‟t o Risk rises with frequency of use, regardless of age, gender, or device  Canadian cancer society (2006): 7 steps to health o 1. Avoid smoking and second-hand smoke o 2. eat a healthy diet and limit alcohol to 1-2 drinks/day o 3. be physically active on a regular basis o 4. protect yourself from the sun o 5. get screened regularly o 6. visit your doctor and dentist regularly o 7. avoid cancer causing substances o studies found that exercise reduces risk of colon cancer so its a protective factor o pros of the list: having a basic guideline o cons: there are behaviors and factors missing from the list Chasing cancer  Since the show aired  Thousands ordered “the cancer smart consumer guide”  Canadian cancer society has started to focus on prevention (ex. oral contraceptive use and environmental toxins)  Plan to assess chemicals in use in Canada (health Canada & environmental Canada) Video  1 in 2.3 men and 1 in 2.6 women will have cancer in their lifetime  50% of cancers are preventable  genetic radiations and carcinogens cause cancer  tested her for 57 chemicals and had 44 of them some were unusually high and some were small amounts  she was full of carcinogens and apparently that normal  they don‟t know whats causing so many cancers  arsenic benzene PCBs are some chemicals in her blood  2-10% can be caused by carcinogens  childhood cancer has increase by 25% in the last 30 years, lately it has leveled off  14 million kg of carcinogens are released into the environment each year  danny steinke  treated from age 7-10 and has been healthy for 10 years  more then 1/3 of child cancer survivors can expect to have a life threatening illness by the age of 45  sam Epstein  pathologist who wrote a cancer book  7 steps basically saying that if you get cancer its your own fault  causes of cancer: 35% diet 30% tobaco, 2-5% genetics  200 dif kinds of cancers  cleaning supplies garden sprays, makeup are some things that might contain carcinogens  pill is the largest unregulated human trial that‟s ever been producted  Canadians inject cows with hormones, at least one of those are carcinoge
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