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Chapter 16.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Tobacco:  Smoking is the most preventable cause of disease and premature death in Canada  Every cigarette a person smokes reduces life expectancy by ~11 minutes  More than 37,000 people die prematurely each year in Canada due to tobacco use  Tobacco use in any form is unsafe  Tobacco use is widespread in our society  Third hand smoke can still be cancer causing Nicotine Addiction:  An addiction involving physical dependence on the psychoactive drug nicotine  Nicotine  “a poisonous, addictive substance found in tobacco and responsible for many of the effects of tobacco”  Addicted users must keep a steady amount of nicotine in the blood and going in the brain  If that amount decreases, they experience withdrawal symptoms  Nicotine addiction can start after within a few days of smoking and after just a few cigarettes Health Hazards of Cigarette Smoking:  Negative effects on nearly every organ of the body and decreases overall health  Related to more than two dozen diseases and conditions  Contain >4000 chemicals, at least 50 that are carcinogens or co-carcinogens (chemicals that work with other chemicals that promote cancer) and/ or irritate the tissues of the respiratory system  Smoke contains carbon monoxide in concentrations 400X greater than safety threshold in workplaces  Every single body system is affected by smoking  Long- term Effects of Smoking: o Decreased life expectancy:  On average, smokers live 10-15 years less than nonsmokers Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS):  Commonly called “second hand smoke”  Third hand smoke: smoke residue trapped in clothing and furniture  Consists of: o Mainstream smoke  actual smoke exhaled by smokers o Sidestream smoke  from burning of end of the cigarette, or pipe  Sidestream smoke contains higher concentrations of toxic and carcinogenic compounds (at least 2X the nicotine and tar) then mainstream smoke because that smoke has not been filtered from the cigarette or the persons lungs  Nearly 85% of the smoke in a room where someone is smoking sidestream smoke  Effects of ETS: o Labeled a “Class A” cancer-causing substance (most dangerous of cancer agents, no known safe exposure level) o Regular exposure to ETS increases chances of contracting lung disease by 25% and heart disease by 10% o At least 1000 non-smokers die from exposure to ETS in Canada each year  >300 from lung cancer  at least 700 from coronary heart disease o Coughs, headaches, nasal discomfort, eye irritation, breathlessness, sinus problems, etc.  Children and ETS: o Children have faster metabolism and can absorb more smoke than adults o ETS triggers ~150,000-300,000 cases of bronchitis, pneumonia, and other respiratory infections in infants and toddlers each year o Can induce and exacerbate symptoms of asthma in children o 10% of children (<12 years) regularly exposed to ETS in the home Smoking and Pregnancy:  20-30% of pregnant women use tobacco throughout pregnancy  only 13-21% of female smokers quit when finding out they are pregnant  50% of those who quit during pregnancy relapse to smoking wit
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