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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Psychological Health.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 2: Psychological Health Week 2 What is Psychological Health?  Encompasses the mental, emotional, social and spiritual dimensions of health  Should be on the same level as physical health It is NOT/CANNOT BE:  Psychological Normality o Normal = close to average o Psychological diversity is valuable and what makes society interesting  Determined on the basis of symptoms alone o E.g. anxiety, sadness  Determined form they way people look It IS:  The absence of mental sickness o If someone doesn’t have a mental disorder than they are mentally healthy o Negative definition o Narrow  The presence of mental wellness o Positive definition o Broad  Fulfillment of human potential o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Describes an ideal of mental health  Studied individuals who lived “full” lives  Advanced a hierarchy of needs in order of urgency  When urgent needs are satisfied, less urgent needs will then take priority o Physiological needs = most urgent  Breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion o Safety  Security of body, employment, resources, morality, family, health and property o Love and belonging  Friendship, family, sexual intimacy o Esteem  Self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others o Self-Actualization  Those who make it to the top of the needs hierarchy achieve self- actualization  Self-actualized individuals = psychologically health individuals  Characterized by several specific qualities:  Realism o Deal with the world the way it is o Controlling the controllable o Knowing what you can and cannot change  Acceptance o Accept yourself and other people o Positive but realistic self concept and self-esteem o Don’t feel intimidated by others  Autonomy o Act independently of environment o Able to direct themselves o Not afraid to be themselves  Capacity for Intimacy o Giving and receiving  Creativity o Being open minded and open to new experiences and ideas  Can we reach self-actualization?  An ideal to strive for  Cannot redo the past o E.g. childhood, past experiences  Must concentrate on successfully meeting current challenges Characteristics of a Psychologically Healthy Individual 1. Feel Comfortable about themselves  Experiences the full range of human emotions but are not overcome by them 2. Interact well with others  Are able to give and receive love  Have satisfying relationships 3. Able to meet the demands of life  Respond appropriately to problems  Accept responsibility  Establish realistic goals 4. Striking a balance in all aspects of your life  CMHA added to list 5. Resilience  CMHA add to list  The ability to recapture a sense of psychological wellness within a reasonable time after encountering a difficult situation Self-Esteem  Critical component of psychological wellness  Increase in self-esteem may offset self-destructive behaviours  Increase in self-esteem means finding a balance between you “idealized self” and where you are now  Foundations of SE can be traced to childhood  People are eventually responsible for enhancing their own self-esteem Hardiness  Works with self-esteem to ensure physiological health  Exists when a person consistently shows 3 important traits: 1. A high level of commitment to something or someone 2. A sense of control 3. Welcome challenge  3 C’s: Commitment, control and challenge  Typically engage in activities that involve these three areas o i.e. volunteering Psychological Disorders  Many people have a less that optimal level of psychological health  We all experience the ups and downs of day to day living  Becomes problematic when it interferes with day to day life  Often people feel a lack of control  Most of us will either have emotional problems ourselves or know someone who is experiencing them  Result from many factors such as: o Genetic differences o Learning o Life events Mood Disorders Depression  An emotional state characterized by feelings of sadness, melancholy, dejection, worthlessness, emptiness and hopelessness that are inappropriate and out of proportion to reality  Becomes an illness when these feelings are severe, last for several weeks and begin to interfere with one’s work and social life  People don’t always look sad  Genetics play a role but environment brings it out  Any of the following may be indicators of depression: o Feeling worthless, helpless or hopeless o Sleeping more or less than usual o Eating more or less than usually/weight loss o Having difficulty concentrating or making decisions o Loss of interest in doing usual activities o Decreased sex drive o Avoiding other people o Overwhelming feelings of sadness of grief o Feeling unreasonably guilty o Decreased energy, feeling very tired o Thoughts of death or suicide  Almost 3 million Canadians suffer from depression  Women are nearly twice as likely as men to be clinically depressed o Great mystery  Only 35% of depressed people seek help  Individuals with depression commonly have a number of compounding problems o E.g. family problems, difficulty with social relationships  Depression is a common factor related to most suicides Types of Depression Major Depression  Primary or “endogenous” depression o Begins for no apparent reason and is likely caused by changes in brain chemistry  Secondary or “exogenous” depression o Develops after periods of difficulty o Exogenous = external trigger  E.g. divorce or loss of job Dysthymia  Persistent symptoms of mild or moderate depression for 2 years or more (adults) or 1 year or more in children  May be periods of happiness, but very short  Children are often irritable and angry Treating Depression  Most effective treatments for major depression are psychotherapy and antidepressant medications  Both treatments can be effective when used alone or in combination  Contrasts with the heavy reliance on antidepressive medication alone favoured during the past decade  Recovery within 2 years is not uncommon, although never assured  Most treatable mental illness Psychotherapy  Typically a form of cognitive-behavioural therapy in which the depressed person learns how to recognize and deal with life situations in a constructive fashion Drug Therapy  Involved one or more of four classes of antidepressive medications o Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors  Blocks neurotransmitters  Is less favoured because has poor reactions with food o Tricyclic antidepressants  Named after structure o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)  Allow serotonin to be used more effectively  Most common
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