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Lecture 11

Lecture 11- Cancer.docx

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Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Lecture 11 – Chapter 8 - Cancer What is Cancer  Abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells o Tumour  a mass of cells with no physiological purpose  Benign Tumour  only dangerous if it interferes with other body functions  Malignant Tumour  Cancerous, can spread to surround tissues (metastasis)  2 leading cause of death in Canada (following heart disease)  45% men and 40% women will have cancer in their lifetime  Aging populations o 89% of new cases diagnosed are > 55 years of age Young Adult Cancer Risk  Canadian Cancer Society (2009) report on young adults (ages 15-29)  More females than males diagnosed with cancer but slightly more males than females die from cancer  Most common type of cancer in young women is breast cancer and in young men is testicular cancer  Most challenging in this group: o Unknown risk factors  Don’t know the warning signs o Rare cancer types o Aggressive progression o Delayed diagnosis/treatment  Lack of knowledge when to seek care  Need routine check ups  Signs and symptoms: o Lumps in the body  E.g. neck, breast, testes o Isolated pain o Fatigue  Suggestion o Regular physical examinations o Prevention and screening  E.g. pap tests, HPV vaccination o Awareness of bodily changes o Research on risk factors Role of DNA  Oncogene  if mutated, over-active, cancer causing  Tumour suppressor gene  normal function to control cell growth  Mutagens  substances that causes mutations in DNA  Carcinogens/cancer initiator  Mutagens that causes cnacer Lifestyle and Cancer  New evidence shows that lifestyle factors are related to modifications in DNA  ½ of all cancers may be preventable  Dietary factors o Alcohol consumption o Obesity/Physical Activity  not correlated to BMI but correlated to fat composition o Poor diet, exercise habits plus obesity = ~22% of all cancer deaths  Environmental toxins o E.g. Benzene, lead, PAH, ionization agents, exposure to UV o Lead is an ionizing agent from sun o PHA is a rain form of hydrocarbons and can be found in fuel that burns  Tobacco (both cancer initiator and promoter) o ~30% of all cancer deaths, 85% of lung cancer cases  87% of lung cancer cases prevented by avoiding tobacco exposure Canadian Cancer Society: 7 Steps to Health 1. Avoid smoking and second-hand smoke 2. Eat a health diet and limit alcohol o 5-10 servings of fruits and vegetables o High fibre o Low fat o Limit alcohol to 1-2 drinks per day 3. Be physically active on a regular basis o Obesity is related to increasing risk including breast and colon cancer o Exercise reduces the risk of colon cancer 4. Protect yourself from the sun o Use at least SPF 15 5. Get screen regularly 6. Visit your doctor and dentist regularly o Notify physicians if you have symptoms such as fatigue o Need to know family history as well 7. Avoid cancer-causing substances  List is not great because many people follow these and still develop cancer…why is this? Skin Cancer Melanoma  Easily detected and highly curable when detected early  Exposure to ultraviolet rays  Common causes: o Sunburns and suntans  Types: o Non-melanoma  Basal and Squamous  Most common cancer, ~1/3 of all cancer cases o Melanoma  More dangerous and deadly form  Prevention o Avoid long term overexposure to sunlight o Avoid blistering and peeling sunburns o See p. 257 “Core Concepts in Health” for more tips  Detection o ABCD Screen Test Skin Cancer Statistics  Skin cancer estimates for Canada in 2012 (Canadian Cancer Society) o Non-melanoma  81,300 people will be diagnosed
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