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Lecture 9

Lecture 9- Chapter 6 - Exercise for Health and Fitness.docx

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Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 1001A/B
Shauna Burke

Chapter 6 – Exercise for Health and Fitness Lecture 9 The Benefits of Exercise  Scientists have studied the effects of exercise on health and functioning for the past 40 years  Found to be the most important action you can take to improve wellness through: o Decrease impact of disease o Increase energy levels o Increase immune function o Increase emotional wellbeing  Reduced risk of heart disease: o Regular exercise strengthens the heart and enables it to work more efficiently  Improved bone health: o Regular weight bearing exercise improved the strength and density of bone  Implications for osteoporosis o Regular aerobic exercise improves the integrity of cartilage in synovial joint  Implications for osteoarthritis  More efficient metabolism o Physically fit person better able to generate energy and regulate hormones o Higher resting metabolism and burning more at rest  Protect against free radical damage o Produced during normal metabolic process o Activates antioxidant enzymes that prevent free radical damage and maintain health of body cells  Improved body composition o Through direct energy expenditure and improving fat mass to fat-free mass ratio o Young people often exercise for better body composition, older people exercise for health reasons  Longevity o Decrease risk of death regardless of body composition o People who exercise are less likely to die from all causes than sedentary people Video – 23 ½ Hours  Sedentary activity is a paradox because sedentary means inactivity o Should be sedentary pursuit  Spend 30 mins a day exercising  Latino children ages 10-12, on average, watched 4.8 hours of television a day Psychological and Emotional Wellness  People who are physically active experience many social, psychological and emotional benefits o Decrease stress o Decrease anxiety and depression o Increase self-image o Increase learning and memory o Enjoyment Physical Fitness  A set of health or performance-related attributes related to the ability to engage in physical activity  5 components of physical fitness 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance 2. Muscle Strength 3. Muscle Endurance 4. Flexibility 5. Body Composition Cardiorespiratory Endurance  Ability to perform prolonger, large-muscle dynamic exercise  Depends on how well your heart, lungs and circulatory system are working  Activities such as jogging or cycling develop cardio respiratory endurance Muscular Strength  Amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort  Strong muscles are important for activities of daily living  Developed by weight training and resistance training exercises  Measured by one rep max Muscular Endurance  Ability of a muscle group to remain contracted and resist fatigue  Muscular endurance important for postural muscles to hold the spine in the correct alignment and decrease strain  Developed through weight training Flexibility  Ability to move joints through full range of motion  Stretching exercises and activities such as yoga can help minimize stiffness and maintain optimal range of motion  Is important, but is often looked over Body Composition  Proportion of fat to fat-free mass in the body  Healthy body composition involved high proportion of fat-free mass and acceptably low level of body fat  A person with high body fat is more likely to experience a variety of health problems Disease Prevention and Management Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)  A leading cause of death in Canada  Places increased burden on individuals, families and healthcare system  A sedentary lifestyle is one of the six major risk factors for CVD  Physical inactivity increases risk of CVD by 50-240%  Other risk factors in for CVD: o Smoking, unhealthy cholesterol levels, increased blood pressure, diabetes, obesity  Recent stats (Heart and Stroke Foundation, 2006) o Alarming increase in obesity, particularly among children o Decrease in smoking rates, placing Canada as a world leader in tobacco control o Increase prevalence of cardiovascular risk among lower income and First Nations populations Prevention  How can we best prevent the ill effects of CVD? o Improved cardiorespiratory endurance through aerobic exercise o Numerous studies have confirmed the protective effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system Management  Cardiac Rehabilitation o Aims to restore individuals who have suffered a myocardial infraction (i.e. heart attack) to optimal health o Achieved through either an exercise only program or comprehensive program o Research shows that individuals who participate in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation have significantly decreased mortality compared to those receiving conventional care  Eliminating and re-evaluating amount of sleep and food you’re eating Cancer  Some studies show relationship between increased physical activity and decreased risk for all types of cancer  Strong evidence to suggest that regular exercise decreases colon cancer o Know that exercise is beneficial but researchers won’t go the extra mile and
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